Part D. Chapter 2: Dietary Patterns, Foods and Nutrients, and Health Outcomes
What is the relationship between dietary patterns and measures of body weight or obesity?
Conclusion Statement: The DGAC concurs with the 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity1 that strong evidence demonstrates that, preferably as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention carried out by multidisciplinary teams of professionals or nutrition professionals, overweight and obese adults can achieve weight loss through a variety of dietary patterns that achieve an energy deficit. Clinically meaningful weight losses that were achieved ranged from 4 to 12 kg at 6-month follow-up. Thereafter, slow weight regain is observed, with total weight loss at 1 year of 4 to 10 kg and at 2 years of 3 to 4 kg. However, some dietary patterns may be more beneficial in the long-term for cardiometabolic health.
DGAC Grade: Strong
The DGAC concurs with the NEL Dietary Patterns Systematic Review Project2 that moderate evidence indicates dietary patterns that are higher in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; include seafood and legumes; are moderate in dairy products (particularly low and non-fat dairy) and alcohol; lower in meats (including red and processed meats), and low in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, and refined grains are associated with favorable outcomes related to healthy body weight (including lower BMI, waist circumference, or percent body fat) or risk of obesity. Components of the dietary patterns associated with these favorable outcomes include higher intakes of unsaturated fats and lower intakes of saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium.
DGAC Grade: Moderate
Evidence for children is limited, but studies in the NEL Dietary Patterns Systematic Review Project and the systematic review focused on this age group by Ambrosini et al.3 suggest that dietary patterns in childhood or adolescence that are higher in energy-dense and low-fiber foods, such as sweets, refined grains, and processed meats, as well as sugar-sweetened beverages, whole milk, fried potatoes, certain fats and oils, and fast foods increase the risk of obesity later on in life.
DGAC Grade: Limited