Appendix E-2.26 Evidence Portfolio

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Part D. Chapter 2: Dietary Patterns, Foods and Nutrients, and Health Outcomes

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular disease?

Conclusion Statement: The DGAC concurs with the conclusions of the NEL Dietary Patterns Systematic Review Project and AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk that strong and consistent evidence demonstrates that dietary patterns associated with decreased risk of CVD are characterized by higher consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and seafood, and lower consumption of red and processed meat, and lower intakes of refined grains, and sugar-sweetened foods and beverages relative to less healthy patterns. Regular consumption of nuts and legumes and moderate consumption of alcohol also are shown to be components of a beneficial dietary pattern in most studies. Randomized dietary intervention studies have demonstrated that healthy dietary patterns exert clinically meaningful impact on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood lipids and blood pressure. Additionally, research that includes specific nutrients in their description of dietary patterns indicate that patterns that are lower in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium and richer in fiber, potassium, and unsaturated fats are beneficial for reducing cardiovascular disease risk.

DGAC Grade: Strong