The Basics: Overview
Birth control (also called contraception) can help you prevent pregnancy when you don’t want to have a baby. Male and female condoms are types of birth control that can also help protect you and your sex partner from STDs (sexually transmitted diseases).
How do I choose the right birth control?
There isn’t one method of birth control that’s right for everyone. Each type of birth control has pros and cons.
Here are some things to think about when choosing a birth control method:
- Do you want to have children someday? How soon?
- Do you have any health conditions?
- How often do you have sex?
- How many sex partners do you have?
- Do you also need protection against HIV and other STDs?
- How well does the birth control method work?
- Are there any side effects?
- Will you be able to use it correctly every time?
How does birth control work?
It depends on the type of birth control you choose. Different methods of birth control work in different ways.
The Basics: IUDs
IUDs (intrauterine devices)
An IUD is a small, T-shaped piece of plastic with copper or hormones that a doctor or nurse places inside a woman's uterus.
There are 2 kinds:
- Copper IUDs release a small amount of copper to prevent sperm from fertilizing an egg. It can last for up to 10 years.
- Hormonal IUDs release a small amount of hormone to prevent pregnancy. There are 4 different types of hormonal IUDs. Some kinds can last for up to 5 years and some can last for up to 3 years.
IUDs are very effective at preventing pregnancy. You don't feel the IUD when it’s in place – and there's nothing to do or remember once it's there. IUDs don't protect you or your sex partner from STDs. But you can use a condom with your IUD to help protect against STDs.
If you have an IUD and you want to get pregnant, a doctor or nurse can easily remove it. Read more about IUDs.
The Basics: The Basics: Hormonal Methods
These methods work by preventing a woman’s ovaries from releasing an egg each month. They also cause other changes that make it less likely that you'll get pregnant.
Some hormonal methods work better than others, and some require more effort to use. For example, you have to take birth control pills every day – but once an implant is in place, it lasts for up to 3 years.
Hormonal methods include:
- Hormonal IUD – can last for 3 to 5 years, depending on the type
- Implant (a small rod put under the skin) – can last for 3 years
- Shot – given by a doctor or nurse every 3 months
- Patch – worn on the skin and replaced once a week, with one week off every month
- Ring – put in the vagina and replaced once a month
- Birth control pills – taken every day
These methods don't protect you or your sex partner from STDs. But you can use condoms to help protect against STDs while using hormonal birth control.
If you're interested in a hormonal method of birth control, talk with your doctor or nurse about which kind is best for you. Read more about hormonal birth control options.
The Basics: Barrier Methods
Barrier methods work by preventing the sperm and egg from touching each other. Common barrier methods include:
- Male condoms (worn on the penis)
- Female condoms (placed inside the vagina)
- Birth control diaphragm or cervical cap (placed inside the vagina)
- Birth control sponge (placed inside the vagina)
Male condoms are also very effective at preventing HIV and reducing the risk of other STDs when used correctly every time you have sex.
Female condoms may also help prevent HIV and other STDs. Diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges don't protect against STDs.
The Basics: Fertility Awareness Methods
Fertility Awareness Methods
Fertility Awareness Methods (FAMs) are sometimes called natural family planning. With FAMs, you learn which days you're more likely to get pregnant. If you want to prevent pregnancy, you don’t have sex on those days – or you use another method of birth control.
FAMs are only an option for women who have regular periods. It's important to know that FAMs are not typically as effective at preventing pregnancies as some other forms of birth control, like IUDs or hormonal methods.
Couples can also use FAMs when they're trying to get pregnant. Read more about fertility awareness methods.
The Basics: Emergency Contraception
Sometimes you may forget to use birth control – for example, you could miss a pill or shot. And sometimes birth control methods can fail, like if a condom breaks.
There are 2 options for emergency contraception:
- Copper IUD – A doctor or nurse will need to place this inside your uterus within 5 days of unprotected sex.
- Emergency contraception pills (ECPs) – You'll need to take ECPs as soon as possible within 5 days of unprotected sex. The sooner you take them, the more effective they are. You can buy some ECPs at a drugstore without a prescription. To get other ECPs, you need a prescription from a doctor.
Taking ECPs won’t harm a pregnancy if you're already pregnant. ECPs won't protect you from STDs, so consider getting tested for STDs if you didn't use a condom – or if the condom broke.
The Basics: Sterilization
Sterilization is a permanent method of birth control. This is an option for people who are 100% sure they don’t want children – or don't want any more children than they already have.
- In men, this means cutting or blocking the tubes that carry sperm to the outside of the penis. This is called a vasectomy. Read more about sterilization for men.
- In women, this means cutting or blocking the tubes that carry eggs into the uterus. Cutting the tubes is called tubal ligation and blocking the tubes is called a tubal implant. Read more about sterilization for women.
The Basics: STD Prevention
What types of birth control help prevent STDs?
Abstinence (not having vaginal, anal, or oral sex) is the only sure way to prevent STDs. Using a male condom correctly every time you have sex is a very effective way to prevent many STDs, including HIV. Female condoms may also lower the risk of some STDs.
Non-barrier methods (like birth control pills, IUDs, and other hormonal methods) don’t prevent STDs. If you choose one of these types of birth control, it won't protect you or your sex partner from HIV and other STDs – so you may also want to use condoms for protection.
The Basics: How to Get It
Do I need to see a doctor to get birth control?
It depends on which birth control method you choose. You can buy some birth control methods at a store without a prescription. For other methods, you'll need to see a doctor or nurse.
Birth control methods you can get without a prescription include:
- Male condoms
- Female condoms
- Birth control sponge
Birth control methods you can get only from a doctor, nurse, or pharmacist include:
- Birth control pills
- Diaphragm and cervical cap
You need a medical procedure for:
- Sterilization (for both women and men)
Check out these resources to learn more about the different types of birth control:
Take Action: Get Help
Follow these steps to choose the right birth control for you.
Talk to a nurse, doctor, or family planning educator.
Ask about the types of birth control that are available to you. There are many things to consider, including:
- Your overall health
- Whether you want to have children in the future
- How well the birth control works
- What side effects the birth control may cause
What about cost?
The Affordable Care Act requires most insurance plans to cover birth control that's prescribed by a woman's doctor. Most plans must also cover birth control education and counseling for women.
Depending on your insurance plan, you may be able to get these services at no cost to you. Talk to your insurance company to learn more.
For information about other preventive services for women covered by the Affordable Care Act, visit HealthCare.gov.
Find free or low-cost services near you.
If you don’t have insurance that covers birth control, you may be able to get free or low-cost birth control through a family planning clinic or community health center.
Family planning clinics provide education, counseling, and medical services. No one is turned away for not being able to pay. To get services near you, find a local health center.
Take Action: Talk about It
Talk to your sex partner.
Some types of birth control are used by men, and some types are used by women. It's a good idea to have a conversation with your partner to make sure that both of you are comfortable with the birth control method you choose. Be sure to talk about getting tested for STDs and how you can stay safe.
And when you both understand how a method works, it'll be easier to use the method correctly.
Make sure you understand the instructions.
Be sure you understand what you need to do to protect yourself from an unplanned pregnancy or an STD. If you have questions, talk to a doctor or pharmacist.
Have a back-up plan.
It's important to know what to do if you forget to use birth control or if your birth control method fails. For example, you may want to buy ECPs in advance. That way, you'll have them if you need them.
Take Action: STD Testing
Get tested for STDs.
Most people who have an STD don’t have any symptoms. Getting tested is the only way to know for sure if you have one.
Have an honest conversation with your doctor or nurse about your sexual activity and ask if you need to get tested for STDs.
To find a place to get tested:
- Enter your ZIP code to find an STD clinic.
- Call 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).
It's also important to talk with your partner about getting tested. Use these tips to start the conversation.
Get tested for HIV.
As with other STDs, getting tested for HIV is the only way to know for sure if you have it.
You can get tested at a doctor’s office or health center. To find an HIV testing center:
- Use this testing center locator.
- Text your ZIP code to Knowit (566948).
- Call 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).
Content last updated July 24, 2020
This information on birth control was adapted from materials from the Office on Women’s Health and the Office of Population Affairs.
Health Communication Science Office
Office of the Director
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention