Objective Status

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  • 5 Developmental
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Injury and Violence Prevention Workgroup Objectives (29)

About the Workgroup

Approach and Rationale

Injuries are the leading cause of death for Americans ages 1 to 44 years.1,2 In 2017, more than 240,000 people died from injuries,2 and nearly 1 in 10 suffered a nonfatal injury serious enough to be treated in a hospital emergency department.2

 Beyond their immediate health consequences, injuries and violence have a significant impact on the well-being of Americans. Injuries and violence contribute to:

·      Premature death

·      Years of potential life lost

·      Disability and disability-adjusted life years lost

·      Poor mental health

·      High medical costs

·      Lost productivity3,4

The effects of injuries and violence extend beyond the injured person or victim of violence to family members, friends, co-workers, employers, and communities.

Understanding Injury and Violence Prevention

Numerous factors can affect the risk of unintentional injury and violence.

Individual behaviors, like alcohol and drug use or risk-taking, are often connected with factors in the social and physical environment and can increase injuries.5,6,7

The physical environment — in the home and community — can affect the rate of injuries related to falls, road traffic injuries, and violence.8,9,10

Access to health services — for example, systems created for injury-related care — including primary care, acute care, and rehabilitation, can aid in prevention and reduce the consequences of injuries, including death and long-term disability.

The social environment has a notable influence on the risk for injury and violence through:

  • Individual social experiences, like social norms, education, and victimization history
  • Social relationships, like parental monitoring and supervision of youth, peer group associations, and family interactions
  • Community environment, like cohesion in schools, neighborhoods, and communities
  • Societal-level factors, like cultural beliefs, attitudes, incentives and disincentives, and laws and regulations11

Interventions that address these social and physical factors have the potential to prevent unintentional injuries and violence.12,13

Emerging Issues in Injury and Violence Prevention

Several emerging issues in injury and violence prevention need further research, analysis, and monitoring.

In the area of unintentional injuries, there is a need to better understand the trends, causes, and prevention strategies related to:

  • Drug overdose deaths
  • Motor vehicle crashes due to distracted driving
  • Traumatic brain injury

In the area of violence, there is a need to better understand the trends, causes, and prevention strategies related to:

  • Bullying, dating violence, and sexual violence among youth
  • Adverse childhood experiences
  • Overlapping causes of violence

Citations

1.

Herron, M. (2019). Deaths: Leading Causes for 2017 [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr68/nvsr68_06-508.pdf

2.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019) Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars

3.

Florence, C., Simon, T., Haegerich, T., Luo, F., & Zhou, C. (2015). Estimated Lifetime Medical and Work-Loss Costs of Fatal Injuries – United States, 2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 64(38), 1078-1082. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6438a4.htm

4.

Florence, C., Zhou, C., Luo, F., & Xu, L. (2016). The Economic Burden of Prescription Opioid Overdose, Abuse, and Dependence in the United States, 2013. Medical care, 54(10), 901–906. DOI: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000625.

5.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Retrieved from https://khoerulanwarbk.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/urie_bronfenbrenner_the_ecology_of_human_developbokos-z1.pdf

6.

Haegerich, T.M, et al. (2014). Advancing Injury and Violence Prevention in the USA. The Lancet, 384(9937), 64-74. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60074-X

7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Violence Prevention [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/sem_framewrk-a.pdf

8.

Mack, K., Liller, K.D., Baldwin, G.T., & Sleet, D.A. (2015). Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid. Health Education and Behavior, 42(1S) 115S–122S. DOI: 10.1177/1090198114568306 2015.

9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Handbook of Injury and Violence Prevention. DOI 10.2471/BLT.09.064436.

10.

Branas, C.C., et al. (2011). A Difference-in-Differences Analysis of Health, Safety, and Greening Vacant Urban Space. American Journal of Epidemiology, 174(11), 1296-1306. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwr273

11.

Mercy JA, Mack KA, Steenkamp M. Changing the social environment to prevent injuries. Chapter 15 in Handbook of injury and violence prevention (pp 277-94). Doll LS, Bonzo SE, Mercy JA, et al., editors. New York: Springer; 2007.

12.

Gielen, A.C, & Sleet, D.A. (2007). Injury and violence prevention: Behavioral Science Theories, Methods, and Applications. Injury Prevention, 13(5), 360. DOI: 10.1136/ip.2007.016279

13.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Technical Packages for Violence Prevention: Using Evidence-based Strategies for Your Violence Prevention Efforts. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pub/technical-packages.html