The Basics: Overview
A bone density test measures how strong your bones are. The test will tell you if you have osteoporosis (or weak bones), and it can help you understand your risk of breaking a bone in the future.
Women are at higher risk for osteoporosis than men, and the risk increases with age.
- If you’re a woman age 65 or older, schedule a bone density test
- If you’re a woman age 64 or younger and you have gone through menopause, ask your doctor if you need a bone density test
Men can get osteoporosis, too. If you’re a man over age 65 and you’re concerned about your bone strength, talk with your doctor or nurse.
What is osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a bone disease. It means your bones are weak and more likely to break. People with osteoporosis most often break bones in the hip, spine, and wrist.
There are no signs or symptoms of osteoporosis. You might not know you have the disease until you break a bone. That’s why it’s so important to get a bone density test to measure your bone strength.
What happens during a bone density test?
A bone density test is like an x-ray or scan of your body. The test doesn't hurt, and you don't need to do anything to prepare for it. It only takes about 15 minutes.
The Basics: Am I at Risk?
Am I at risk for osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is most common in older women, but men can also get it. Your risk for osteoporosis increases as you get older.
Other things can increase your risk for osteoporosis, including:
- Hormone changes (especially for women who have gone through menopause)
- Not getting enough calcium and vitamin D
- Having certain diseases or taking certain medicines
- Smoking cigarettes or drinking too much alcohol
- Not getting enough physical activity
- Having a low body weight
- Having a parent who had osteoporosis or broke a bone
Check out these resources to learn more about osteoporosis and bone health:
The Basics: Treatment Options
What if I have osteoporosis?
If you have osteoporosis, you can still slow down bone loss. Finding and treating the disease early can keep you healthier and more active — and help lower your risk of breaking bones.
Depending on the results of your bone density test, you may need to:
- Add more calcium and vitamin D to your diet
- Get more physical activity
- Take medicine to slow down bone loss and lower your chances of breaking a bone
Your doctor can tell you what steps are right for you. It doesn’t matter how old you are — it’s never too late to improve your bone health.
Take Action: Get Tested
Take these steps to protect your bone health.
Schedule a bone density test if your doctor recommends it.
Ask your doctor if you’re at risk for osteoporosis and if you need to schedule a bone density test.
Use these questions about osteoporosis to start a conversation with your doctor at your next checkup.
What about cost?
Under the Affordable Care Act, insurance plans must cover screening for osteoporosis for:
- Women age 65 and older
- Women age 64 and younger who have gone through menopause who are at increased risk for osteoporosis
Depending on your insurance plan, you may be able to get screened at no cost to you. Check with your insurance company to find out more.
Medicare may also cover bone density tests at no cost. If you have Medicare, learn about Medicare coverage for bone density tests.
If you don’t have insurance, you may still be able to get a free or low-cost bone density test. Find a health center near you and ask about bone density tests.
To learn more, check out these resources:
Take Action: Calcium and Vitamin D
You need both calcium and vitamin D for strong bones.
Get enough calcium.
Calcium helps keep your bones strong. You can get calcium from:
- Fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk, yogurt, and cheese
- Soy milk or yogurt with added calcium
- Certain vegetables, including soybeans, collard greens, and turnip greens
- Tofu with added calcium
- Orange juice with added calcium
- Calcium pills
Get enough vitamin D.
Vitamin D helps your body take in calcium.
Your body makes vitamin D when you’re out in the sun. You can also get vitamin D from:
- Fish like salmon, tuna, and trout
- Milk with added vitamin D
- Some breakfast cereals, yogurt, and juices with added vitamin D
- Vitamin D pills
Take Action: Get Active
Physical activity can help slow down bone loss. Muscle-strengthening activities — like lifting weights or using resistance bands (long rubber strips that stretch) — are best for bone health. Weight-bearing activities (like running or doing jumping jacks) can also help keep your bones strong.
Try these tips to get active:
- Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week — remember, anything that gets your heart beating faster counts!
- Do muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days a week
- Team up with a friend or join a fitness class — getting active with others can help you stick with it
Find activities that work for you.
You don't need special equipment or a gym membership to stay active. Check with your local community center or senior center to find fun, affordable ways to get active.
If you have a health condition or a disability, be as active as you can. Your doctor can help you choose activities that are right for you.
For more tips on staying active, check out these resources:
Take Action: Healthy Habits
Stay away from cigarettes and alcohol.
Smoking cigarettes and drinking too much alcohol can weaken your bones.
- If you smoke, make a plan to quit
- If you choose to drink, drink alcohol only in moderation — that means 1 drink or less in a day for women and 2 drinks or less in a day for men
Take steps to prevent falls.
Falls can be especially serious for people with weak bones. You can make small changes to lower your risk of falling, like doing exercises that improve your balance. For example, tai chi is a mind-body exercise that improves balance.
Content last updated May 10, 2022
This information on back pain prevention was adapted from materials from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Science Communications and Outreach Branch
National Institutes of Health