Watch for Warning Signs of Relationship Violence
It can be hard to know if your relationship is becoming unhealthy or unsafe. But there are things you can do to spot the warning signs of relationship violence and get help.
If you think your partner might be controlling or abusive, it's important to:
- Trust your feelings — if something doesn’t seem right, take it seriously
- Learn the warning signs of someone who might become controlling or violent
- Get help — call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-SAFE (1-800-799-7233 or TTY 1-800-787-3224) to find resources in your area
If your partner is controlling or abusive, it’s better to get help right away. Controlling or violent relationships may get worse over time.
Remember: if your partner hurts you, it’s not your fault.
What is relationship violence?
Relationship violence is when 1 person in a relationship — or from a past relationship — is abusive or controlling toward the other person. Relationship violence can happen in a serious or casual relationship, and it can take place in person or online. Sometimes, both partners act in abusive or controlling ways.
Relationship violence is also called dating violence, domestic violence, or intimate partner violence. It can include:
- Physical violence — like pushing, hitting, or throwing things
- Sexual violence — like forcing or trying to force someone to do something sexual
- Threats of physical or sexual violence — including threatening to hurt another person or a pet
- Emotional abuse — like embarrassing a partner or keeping that person away from family and friends
- Stalking — like watching or following a partner, or sending repeated unwanted phone calls or texts
Get help if your partner is making you feel controlled or afraid — even if they haven’t hurt you physically. There are experts who can help you figure out what to do next.
How do I know if my relationship is healthy?
In healthy relationships, both partners take responsibility for their actions and work together to sort out problems. In a healthy relationship, both people:
- Feel respected, supported, and valued
- Make decisions
- Have friends and interests outside of the relationship
- Settle disagreements with open and honest communication
- Respect each other's privacy and space
How do I know if my relationship might become violent?
Relationship violence can start slowly and be hard to recognize. For example, when people first start dating, it’s common to want to spend a lot of time together. But your partner asking you to spend less time with other people can also be a sign that your partner is trying to control your time.
Ask yourself these questions:
- Does my partner disrespect or insult me?
- Does my partner blame me for problems that aren’t my fault, like how they treat me?
- Does my partner make most of the decisions in our relationship?
- Am I ever afraid to tell my partner something?
- Do I ever feel forced to do things that I don't want to do?
- Has my partner ever forced or pressured me to do something sexual with them when I didn’t want to?
- Does my partner promise to change and then keep doing the same hurtful things?
What if I’m not sure if my relationship is violent?
It’s okay if you’re not sure — you can still get help.
If you have questions about your relationship, call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-SAFE (1-800-799-7233 or TTY 1-800-787-3224) or chat online with a person trained to help. The hotline and chat are free and available 24/7. You don’t even have to give your name.
If you’re in danger right now, call 911.
How can relationship violence affect health?
While physical violence can cause physical injuries, the stress of any kind of relationship violence or abuse can also lead to other serious problems. These include:
- Eating disorders
- Trouble sleeping
- Depression, anxiety, or other mental health problems — like panic attacks or thinking about suicide
- Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD — a type of anxiety disorder you can get after experiencing something traumatic or harmful
- Trouble trusting people and building relationships
- Drinking too much alcohol or using drugs
Relationship violence is not your fault or your responsibility. But if you think your partner is controlling or abusive, there are things you can do to get help.
Make a plan.
If you're in a relationship with someone who is violent or might become violent, make a safety plan. This is important whether you’re planning to leave your partner or not. Use this tool to make a safety plan.
Protect yourself online.
When you look at information online, your computer keeps a record of sites you’ve visited. And when you make calls or send text messages from a smartphone, the phone stores that information.
When you use social media, only post personal information you’re comfortable with other people knowing. Even if your accounts are private, people that follow you can still share information that you post with others.
Follow these technology and social media safety tips if your partner is controlling or abusive.
If you think your relationship is unhealthy — or you're worried about your safety — get help now.
Who can I call?
If you need help or have questions about your relationship, call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-SAFE (1-800-799-7233). You'll be able to find a domestic violence agency near you or talk to a counselor over the phone. If you’re in danger right now, call 911.
What kind of help can I get?
Domestic violence agencies provide:
- Emotional support
- Safety planning
- A safe place to stay in an emergency
- Legal help
- Help with housing
Can I get help for free?
Yes. Domestic violence agencies offer free services, like hotlines and counseling. They also help people find resources, like housing or lawyers.
Under the Affordable Care Act, insurance plans must cover screening and counseling for domestic and interpersonal violence for all women. Depending on your insurance plan, you may be able to get screening and counseling at no cost to you. Check with your insurance company to find out more.
If you don’t have insurance, you may still be able to get free or low-cost help. Find a health center near you and ask about domestic violence services.
To learn more, check out these resources:
- Free preventive care for women covered by the Affordable Care Act
- How the Affordable Care Act protects you
- Understanding your health insurance and how to use it [PDF - 698 KB]
What if I think someone else is in a controlling or violent relationship?
Content last updated July 21, 2022
This information on intimate partner violence was adapted from materials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Office on Women’s Health, and the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office on Violence Against Women.
Sarah DeGue, Ph.D.
Division of Violence Prevention
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention