Increase the rate of bystander CPR for non-traumatic cardiac arrests — PREP‑01 Data Methodology and Measurement

About the National Data


Baseline: 40.2 percent of bystanders performed CPR for all non-traumatic cardiac arrests in 2020

Target: 45.1 percent

Number of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients who receive bystander CPR.
Number of patients with a non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Target-setting method
Percentage point improvement
Target-setting method details
Percentage point improvement from the baseline using Cohen's h effect size of 0.10.
Target-setting method justification
Trend data were not available for this objective. A percentage point improvement was calculated using Cohen's h effect size of 0.1. This method was used because of the variability in data from year to year.


Methodology notes

CARES case: A non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest event where resuscitation is attempted by a 911 responder (CPR and/or defibrillation). This includes patients that received an automated external defibrillator (AED) shock by a bystander prior to the arrival of 911 responders.

Active bystander CPR: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by a lay person in an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation by performing chest compressions with or without ventilation. It excludes patients that go into cardiac arrest after the arrival of a 911 provider since this would not be a situation that a bystander would be able to intervene. It also does not include patients that experience their cardiac arrest in a nursing home or medical facility where trained providers would be able to initiate CPR.

Numerator and denominator exclude 911 responder-witnessed events.


Comparable HP2020 objective
Retained, which includes core objectives that are continuing from Healthy People 2020 with no change in measurement.
Revision History

In 2021, this objective was revised due to the creation of a new cohort by the data source, CARES. The baseline was revised from 38.2% in 2017 to 40.2% in 2020. The target was revised from 43.1% to 45.1% using the original target setting method.

1. Effect size h=0.1 was chosen to correspond with 10% improvement from a baseline of 50%.