Increase the rate of bystander AED use for non-traumatic cardiac arrests in public places — PREP‑02 Data Methodology and Measurement

About the National Data


Baseline: 9.0 percent of bystanders used an AED for non-traumatic cardiac arrests occurring in public locations in 2020

Target: 12.0 percent

Number of out-of-hospital non-traumatic cardiac arrest patients who receive bystander AED in a public location.
Number of patients with a non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a public location.
Target-setting method
Percentage point improvement
Target-setting method details
Percentage point improvement from the baseline using Cohen's h effect size of 0.10.
Target-setting method justification
Trend data were not available for this objective. A percentage point improvement was calculated using Cohen's h effect size of 0.1. This method was used because of the variability in data from year to year.


Methodology notes

CARES case: A non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest event where resuscitation is attempted by a 911 responder (CPR and/or defibrillation). This includes patients that received an automated external defibrillator (AED) shock by a bystander prior to the arrival of 911 responders.

Active bystander AED intervention: Automated external defibrillator application to the patient by a lay person with a minimum of one analysis of the patient's heart rhythm performed, regardless of whether or not a shock is indicated. It excludes patients that go into cardiac arrest after the arrival of a 911 provider since this would not be a situation that a bystander would be able to intervene. It also does not include patients that experience their cardiac arrest in a nursing home or medical facility where trained providers would be able to apply an AED or monitor/defibrillator.

Public locations: All defined CARES location types with the exception of Home/Residence; Healthcare Facility/Hospital; Nursing Home; and Jail to include Public/Commercial Building; Street/Highway; Place of Recreation; Industrial Place; Transport Center; Other.

Numerator and denominator exclude 911 witnessed events.


Comparable HP2020 objective
Retained, which includes core objectives that are continuing from Healthy People 2020 with no change in measurement.
Revision History

In 2021, this objective was revised due to the creation of a new cohort by the data source, CARES. The baseline was revised from 11.4% in 2017 to 9.0% in 2020. The target was revised from 14.8% to 12.0% using the original target setting method.

1. Effect size h=0.1 was chosen to correspond with 10% improvement from a baseline of 50%.