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Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015

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Anonymous Comment ID #620

08/13/2014

I think it's important to eat food grown locally and in season, as much as possible, for health and environmental reasons. This creates a smaller "foot print", healthier animals, and ultimately healthier people. Eat meat, in moderation, but make sure your meat has been humanely raised and processed. Local food supports a healthier lifestyle,supports a local economy and is easier on the environment.

Affiliation: Individual/Professional Organization:
Topic:
  • Sustainability

Anonymous Comment ID #619

08/12/2014

Please find the attached document.

Affiliation: Industry/Industry Association Organization: Herbalife International
Topic:
  • Energy Balance (Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, Calorie Intake, Physical Activity)
  • Food industry approaches to reducing sodium, added sugars, and fats

Anonymous Comment ID #618

08/12/2014

Comments from the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute Committee on Food Value Decisions are attached.

Affiliation: Other Organization: ILSI North America
Topic:
  • Food Environment
  • Food Safety
  • Micronutrients (Sodium, Potassium, Vitamin D, Calcium, Iron)

Yvonne Bronner ScD RD Comment ID #617

08/12/2014

Yogurt – a nutrient dense food/snack that is convenient and important throughout the lifecycle.
This comment is written in celebration of (1) yogurt added as an option in the WIC food package and (2) yogurt added as an option in McDonald’s children meal. This addition of yogurt to the WIC Program allows this very important program to conform to one of the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Yogurt is likely to be a benefit to WIC participants at multiple levels and possibly increase their consumption of much needed fruits and vegetables when they are combined with yogurt. (1) Yogurt has benefits that are valuable across all life stages, such as being a low fat and non-fat dairy product that can provide three out of four nutrients of concern – calcium, potassium and Vitamin D, and being a dairy option that is lower in lactose and thus more easily digested for populations concerned with lactose intolerance. (2,3,4,5) Yogurt’s benefits can be of additional value at key life stages due to increased nutrient needs (adolescence and elderly) and lifestyle behaviors (portion controlled snacks) that can impact dietary patterns.
Since children tend to like yogurt and parents perceive yogurt as “healthy”, its inclusion in WIC and McDonald’s children’s meals have the potential of helping children establish healthy dietary patterns while ensuring that snacks and meal components are nutrient dense. An increased frequency in snacking, as well as increased portion sizes, and shifts in the types of snacks being consumed contribute to excess calorie intake often without strong nutrient contribution. As a portion controlled, nutrient dense low fat and fat free dairy food, yogurt contributes only about 2.8% of added sugars in the diet for children aged 2–8, can help ensure children’s snacks deliver nutrients of concern while managing portions and calories. (4) In addition, recent 25% sugar reduction in the leading children’s yogurt helps support yogurt’s role as a nutrient dense food with minimal contribution to added sugars, sodium and saturated fat.
The health implications of cardiovascular disease, increased blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and obesity are well documented in adults. Eating fat-free and low-fat dairy products, such as yogurt, helps support heart health as part of a balanced diet. The American Heart Association and the DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) both recommend consumption of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products for health. (6)
Yogurt is A versatile food in that it can be used as a substantive component of a meal or as a nutrient dense snack. It is also convenient, allowing it to fit into the busy lifestyle of busy families and WIC participants. Therefore, one yogurt daily can greatly increase the nutrient density of the diet for all children and families.

1. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Revisions in the WIC Food Packages. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, 7 CFR Part 246. March 2014.
2. Shivani Sahni, Katherine L. Tucker, Douglas P. Kiel, Lien Quach, Virginia A. Casey, Marian T. Hannan. Milk and yogurt consumption are linked with higher bone mineral density but not with hip fracture: the Framingham Offspring Study. Arch Osteoporosis (2013)
3. Matlik L, Savaiano D, McCabe G, VanLoan M, Blue CL, Boushey CJ. Perceived milk intolerance is related to bone mineral content in 10- to 13-year-old female adolescents. Pediatrics 2007;120:e669–677.
4. Wang H, Livingston KA, Fox CS, Meigs JB, and Jacques PF. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women. Nutrition Research, January 2013 Jan;33(1):18-26.
5. Dairy Research Institute. NHANES 2003-2006. Data Source: Centers for Disease Control and prevention, National Center for health Statistics, National health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, [2003-2004; 2005-2006] http://www.usdairy.com/DairyResearchInstitute/NHanes/Documents/PDF%208%20- 20Dairy%20food%20contribution%20to%20calorie%20and%20nutrient%20intakes%20-%2003%2023%2011%20DRAFT.pdf
6. Appel LJ, Brands MW, Daniels SR, Karanja N, Elmer PJ, et al. Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 2006;47:296-308.

Affiliation: Individual/Professional Organization: Morgan State University
Topic:
  • Eating Patterns-Diets (USDA Food Patterns, DASH, Vegetarian, Low Carb, Hi-Protein, etc.)
  • Lifespan Needs (Infants, Children, Pregnant Women, Older Adults, etc.)

Anonymous Comment ID #616

08/12/2014

Attached are PHO coalition comments to the U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee regarding the request from Subcommittee 2 “Dietary Patterns, Foods and Nutrients, and Health Outcomes” on steps the food industry is taking or has taken to reduce trans fat in the food supply. This is in furtherance to the 2010 recommendations to reduce PHO/trans fat in the diet as low as possible.

Affiliation: Industry/Industry Association Organization: American Frozen Food Institute
Topic:
  • Food industry approaches to reducing sodium, added sugars, and fats

Constance Brown-Riggs RD, CDE Comment ID #615

08/11/2014

To: The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee
From: Constance Brown-Riggs, MSEd, RD, CDE, CDN Nutrition Advisor for Dannon

As you continue to seek evidence and gain insights related to individual foods and amounts within healthy eating patterns; I would like to bring to your attention several recently published articles on the health benefits of yogurt. Specifically, the evidence that links yogurt – as part of a healthy eating pattern, to a reduced risk of heart disease, hypertension, obesity and type 2 diabetes.

African Americans are disproportionately affected by the diseases mentioned above. In fact, according to new research released August 11, 2014 in the American Heart Association journal Circulation, the impact of major cardiovascular risk factors combined is greater in women than men and in African Americans than whites. Moreover, the gender gap is narrowing, but differences by race are increasing.

The results of this study highlight the ongoing need for targeted as well as population-based approaches to risk factor modification. African Americans consume only 1.5 servings of dairy daily – a major risk factor and contributor to health disparities in this population. Yogurt can help African Americans meet the recommended 3 - 4 servings of dairy daily.

The evidence outlined below speaks volumes to the need, and rationale, for yogurt to be highlighted in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.


1. The role of yogurt in improving the quality of the American diet and meeting dietary guidelines. Web D, et. al. Nutr Rev. 2014 Mar;72(3):180-9.

This review of the literature found that consuming 1 serving of yogurt per day would help to meet the DGA recommended dairy servings and would provide nutrients of concern.

2. Dietary dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: a prospective study using dietary data from a 7-day food diary.
O’Connor LM, et al. Diabetologia. 2014 May;57(5):909-17.

Researchers in this study found that higher consumption of low-fat fermented dairy products, largely driven by yogurt intake, was associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes development. Moreover, these findings suggest that the consumption of specific dairy types may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, highlighting the importance of food group subtypes for public health messages.

3. Effect of Probiotics on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials.
Khalesi S, et. al. Hypertension. 2014 Jul 21. pii: HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03469 [Epub ahead of [print]

Nine trials were included in this meta-analysis. Researchers found that consuming probiotics may improve BP by a modest degree, with a potentially greater effect when baseline BP is elevated.

4. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women.
Wang H, et. al. Nutr Res. 2013;33(1):18-26.

In this study researchers examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile among adults. Yogurt consumers compared with non-yogurt consumers had higher potassium intakes, lower levels of circulating triglycerides and glucose, and lower systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance.

5. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men.
Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, et al. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2392–2404.

In this prospective study researchers examined three separate cohorts of more than 120,000 US women and men followed every four years. Evidence showed that consumption of yogurt, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains was associated with less weight gain over time, with yogurt having the greatest effect..

6. Randomized, controlled trial to examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in WIC. Fung EB, et. al. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2010 May-Jun;42(3 Suppl):S22-9.

In this randomized, controlled intervention trial researchers found that yogurt is likely to be a popular substitute for milk and could contribute to increased dairy intake among women if it were an option in WIC. This study was instrumental in yogurt being added to the WIC food package effective April 1, 2015

Affiliation: Industry/Industry Association Organization: Dannon
Topic:
  • Eating Patterns-Diets (USDA Food Patterns, DASH, Vegetarian, Low Carb, Hi-Protein, etc.)
  • Food Groups (Fruits, Vegetables, Grains, Dairy, Protein Foods)

Michelle Pawliger Comment ID #614

08/11/2014

The Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) would like to thank the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) for providing the opportunity to comment on the 2015 Dietary Guidelines. AWI is a non-profit organization dedicated to alleviating the suffering inflicted on animals by humans. As part of that mission AWI works to enhance farm animal welfare and educate the public on animal agriculture issues. AWI believes it is important for the 2015 Dietary Guidelines to address aspects of the complex, multi-faceted concept of “sustainability.” Consumers need a consistent, transparent, and honest description of ways to contribute to a more sustainable food system in order to support human health and the environment.

It is the goal of the Dietary Guidelines to “encourage Americans to eat a healthful diet — one that focuses on foods and beverages that help achieve and maintain a healthy weight, promote health, and prevent disease.”[1] Implementing the following recommendations will help DGAC meet this goal:

1. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines should encourage a reduction in consumption of animal products.
2. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines should discourage consumers from purchasing animal products from animals raised in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO).

Below, we provide evidence-based rational for these recommendations. For additional information please contact Michelle Pawliger at michelle@awionline.org or (202) 446-2147.

Approximately 9 billion land animals are killed for food each year in the United States alone. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), livestock sectors across the world are one of the most significant contributing factors to serious environmental health problems; animal agriculture as a whole contributes to water depletion, air quality destruction, greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and deforestation.[2] As an example, in the United States the animal agriculture industry is one of the leading contributors to water pollution due to nitrogen and phosphorus in fertilizers.[3] Excess amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus lead to significant increases in algae— this harms water quality, food resources, and decreases oxygen, which reduces fish populations.[4] Additionally, livestock production is a significant contributor to methane production, which is the second most prevalent greenhouse gas emitted in the United States from human activity, with an impact on climate change over 20 times greater than carbon dioxide.[5]

Environmental degradation from animal agriculture is mainly a threat to human health because of CAFOs: where animals are intensively confined by the thousands. Confining animals in this way leads to acute environmental impacts; waste, whether it is excrement, antibiotics, or fertilizer, are at higher concentrations.[6] For example, a single industrialized farm can produce up to 1.6 million tons of manure a year, which can lead to significant ground and surface water contamination.[7] Additionally, approximately 70 percent of antibiotics in the United States are consumed by livestock for non-therapeutic reasons.[8] A substantial portion of these antibiotics end up as pollutants in tap water, surface water, and ground water.[9]

For the reasons stated here, it is essential that DGAC discourage consumers from purchasing products from CAFOs, as they are not a sustainable agriculture model. In order for DGAC to properly inform consumers on how to be more “sustainable” the committee should implement the above recommendations.

References:

1.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/.
2.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options, xx (2006).
3.Environmental Protection Agency, The Problem: Nutrient Pollution http://www2.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/problem.
4. Id.
5. Id.
6. FAO, supra note 1, at 167.
7. Carrie Hribar, MA, Understanding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Their Impact on Communities, 2 (2010).
8. Amy R. Sapkota et al., What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health, Environmental Health Perspectives 665,663-670(2007).
9. FAO, supra note 1, at 143.

Affiliation: Other Organization: Animal Welfare Institute
Topic:
  • Sustainability

Lisa Lefferts MSPH Comment ID #613

08/11/2014

The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) thanks the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) for the opportunity to submit comments on the Subcommittee (SC) request 5-1: Food safety.

CSPI is a non-profit consumer education and advocacy organization that since 1971 has been working to improve the public’s health through better nutrition and food safety policies. CSPI’s work is supported primarily by its 900,000 subscribers to its Nutrition Action Healthletter, the nation’s largest-circulation health newsletter. CSPI is an independent organization that does not accept any government or corporate funding.

We respectfully submit the following additional comments on the safety of aspartame to the DGAC.

We would be pleased to provide more information to the DGAC upon request. Please contact Lisa Lefferts, Senior Scientist, at 202-777-8317 or llefferts@cspinet.org.

Affiliation: Other Organization: Center for Science in the Public Interest
Topic:
  • Food Safety

Hugh Joseph PhD Comment ID #611

08/10/2014

The attached document is a comment in support of incorporating sustainability into the 2015 U.S. Dietary Guidelines, in response to "Request 5-2 Food Systems Sustainability ".

Affiliation: Individual/Professional Organization: Tufts University, Friedman School of Nutrition; Program on Agriculture, Food & Environment
Topic:
  • Sustainability

Pablo Monsivais PhD MPH Comment ID #610

08/08/2014

Limited time available for cooking may be one of the barriers to the adoption of more healthy diets. Research has found that time scarcity is common among working parents earning low wages in the U.S. Even those parents who valued healthy family meals typically served their children foods that were fast and easy to prepare, including hot dogs, pizza, and macaroni and cheese. Studies of low- and middle-income working parents showed that they coped with time pressures by relying more on takeout and restaurant meals and basing family meals on prepared entrees and other quick options. Lack of time was the leading barrier to adopting dietary guidance cited by European adults.

The need for convenience may also be at odds with recommended meal plans that are optimized for nutrition and affordability. Economic analyses of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)’s Thrifty Food Plan have found that these nutritious, low-cost meal plans were time-intensive to prepare and much more costly when time was explicitly accounted for. Other analyses indicate that for single-headed households, time was a greater constraint than money in achieving the Thrifty Food Plan’s dietary targets.

In a forthcoming peer-reviewed manuscript*, we report a research study of over 1300 adults conducted in the USA in which we found that people who spent little time preparing and cooking food and cleaning-up from meals had the least healthy dietary patterns. In our study, those who spent less than 1 hour per day in food preparation at home were more likely to be regular users of fast food restaurants and also spent more money on food away from home than study participants who spent more time in home food preparation. Participants who spent the least amount of time in food preparation also consumed significantly fewer servings of whole fruit, green salads and vegetables excluding potatoes.

Our findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Moreover, government efforts toward identifying lowest-cost yet healthy food patterns need to explicitly account for the associated time costs of producing healthier meals. Doing so would make the true costs of healthier diets more realistic, and, importantly, inform improvements to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program to better support healthy eating in low-income populations.

*Monsivais P, Aggarwal A, Drewnowski A. Time Spent on Home Food Preparation and Indicators of Healthy Eating. American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Affiliation: Educational Institution: Higher Education Organization: University of Cambridge
Topic:
  • Behavior
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