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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Nutrition and Your Health:
Dietary Guidelines for Americans

U.S. Department of Agriculture

Appendix G-7: Biographical Sketches of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Members

Janet King, Ph.D., R.D., Chair

Dr. King joined Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute as a lead scientist in February 2003. She also holds appointments as Professor of Nutrition and Professor of Internal Medicine at the University of California, Davis, and Professor Emeritus of Nutrition at the University of California, Berkeley. Previously, she directed the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Western Human Nutrition Research Center for 8 years. She was a faculty member in the Department of Nutritional Sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, for 23 years and chaired the Department from 1988 to 1994.

Dr. King is internationally recognized for her research of energy and zinc metabolism in healthy adults and pregnant women. In her studies of normal weight and obese women, Dr. King showed that the adjustments in energy expenditure during gestation are dictated by maternal fat stores at conception, demonstrating that maternal nutritional status prior to pregnancy influences pregnancy outcome. This information was the basis for different weight gain standards for underweight, normal weight, and overweight women by an Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee chaired by Dr. King. Dr. King currently chairs a United Nations University, Food and Agriculture Organization, and World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Committee on Dietary Harmonization. Previously, she served on the Food and Agriculture Organization Expert Consultative Group on Energy Requirements. Dr. King was chair of the Food and Nutrition Board in 1994 when the paradigm for the new Dietary Reference Intakes was established. She also served as Vice-Chair of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. She recently served on a special committee of the March of Dimes to establish food-based dietary guidelines for pregnant and lactating women and children younger than age 2 years. She currently is a member of the United Nations International Zinc Consultative Group.

Dr. King has published more than 200 papers and abstracts and has trained more than 50 graduate students, postdoctoral Fellows, and visiting scientists. In addition to maintaining an active research program, she has been committed to translating research findings into policy and practice throughout her career. In recognition of her international and national reputation, Dr. King was elected to membership in the IOM/National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1994. She has a Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California, Berkeley.

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Lawrence Appel, M.D., M.P.H.

Dr. Appel is a Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He holds adjunct appointments in the Departments of Epidemiology and International Health (Human Nutrition Division) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. His academic home is the Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research.

The focus of Dr. Appel's career is the conduct of clinical research pertaining to the prevention of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease through both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, typically nutrition based. He has been Principal Investigator of several studies, many of which have influenced healthcare policy. These studies include randomized feeding studies (e.g., the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the DASH-Sodium trials) and behavioral intervention studies (e.g., the PREMIER trial of comprehensive lifestyle modification). Ongoing research includes two prospective observational studies (the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study and the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study) and two clinical trials (the Omni Heart feeding trial, which tests the effects of different macronutrients on cardiovascular risk factors, and the Weight Loss Maintenance trial, which tests different strategies to maintain weight loss). To date, he has published more than 100 articles.

Dr. Appel has been actively involved in policymaking committees, including the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association (AHA) and several committees of the IOM. The latter include the Committee on Evaluating Coverage of Nutrition Services for the Medicare Population, Committee on Evaluation of the Evolving Science in Dietary Supplements, and Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water, which he chairs. In addition to conducting clinical research, Dr. Appel directs a class on clinical trials, teaches research methods in journal clubs and other settings, and has mentored numerous faculty members, postdoctoral Fellows, and graduate students. He also is a practicing internist.

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Yvonne Bronner, Sc.D., R.D., L.D.

Dr. Bronner is currently a Professor and Director of the Public Health Program at Morgan State University located in Baltimore, Maryland. Previously, Dr. Bronner held faculty positions at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, and Howard University in Washington, DC.

Dr. Bronner holds a B.S. in food and nutrition from the University of Akron in Akron, Ohio, an M.S. in nutrition and public health from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and a doctorate in science, with a concentration in maternal child health from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

Since 1985, she has been a leader in promoting breastfeeding. She served as chair of the research committee for a 5-year community-based breastfeeding promotion project in Washington, DC. Dr. Bronner developed and taught among the Nation's first courses in a school of public health that trained practicing physicians, nurses, and social workers on how to counsel expectant and new mothers on breastfeeding. Dr. Bronner also lead the team that developed the only set of materials (video, pamphlets, and posters) devoted to encouraging African American males to support breastfeeding. The development of these materials was supported by the USDA Food and Nutrition Service, and more than 75,000 copies have been distributed nationwide. She also supports WHO efforts to increase the number of "baby-friendly" hospitals, which substitute breastfeeding support programs for free gifts of infant formula.

Dr. Bronner has more than 20 years of experience in research, training, and program development in the areas of nutrition and maternal and child health. Her work is widely published in peer review journals such as the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, and others. She is the chair of the Consortium of African American Public Health Programs and serves on numerous advisory committees, such as the NAS, IOM, Food and Nutrition Board, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Maternal and Child Health Review Panel, and others.

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Benjamin Caballero, M.D., Ph.D.

Dr. Caballero is Professor of International Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Professor of Pediatrics at the School of Medicine. He is Director of the Center for Human Nutrition at the same institution. He obtained his medical degree at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and his Ph.D. in neuroendocrine regulation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He completed his clinical training at the Harvard Medical School/MIT Clinical Nutrition Training Program.

Dr. Caballero is a member of the Standing Committee for the Scientific Evaluation of the Dietary Reference Intakes, IOM, and has served on the Food and Nutrition Board and on the Macronutrient Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) panel of the IOM. He serves on the Council of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition and is past president of the Society for International Nutrition Research. He also has served as scientific advisor for numerous national and international organizations, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USDA, WHO, and others. His areas of research interest include obesity in children and adolescents, undernutrition, and nutrition and health in developing countries.

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Carlos A. Camargo, M.D., Dr.P.H.

Dr. Camargo is an Associate Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology at Harvard University, an emergency physician at Massachusetts General Hospital, and a research epidemiologist at the Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital—all in Boston, Massachusetts. Since 1982, Dr. Camargo has studied the health effects of moderate alcohol consumption. He has focused on the association between moderate drinking and risk for cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. More recently, he has led research on the epidemiology of alcohol-related injuries and diseases in U.S. emergency departments.

At present, Dr. Camargo's primary areas of research are asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This work includes studies funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on diet, obesity, and risk of asthma/COPD in several large prospective cohorts (e.g., the Nurses' Health Studies).

Dr. Camargo also directs a clinical research collaboration called the Emergency Medicine Network (EMNet). EMNet involves more than 100 U.S. emergency departments ( and focuses on both respiratory emergencies and public health interventions in the emergency department.

Dr. Camargo has more than 140 peer-reviewed publications and is President of the American College of Epidemiology ( He serves on the NIH study section on Epidemiology of Clinical Disorders and Aging and on other national grant review committees. He also has served on, or chaired, several national committees related to asthma, COPD, emergency medicine, and public health.

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Fergus Clydesdale, Ph.D.

Dr. Clydesdale is a Distinguished Professor, head of the Department of Food Science, and Director of the Strategic Research Alliance at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He received his B.A. and M.A. from the University of Toronto and his Ph.D. from the University of Massachusetts. Dr. Clydesdale has published about 360 scientific articles and has coauthored or edited 20 books. He has served on numerous committees, including those of the NAS, the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the U.S. Senate, IFT, ILSI-NA, Codex Alimentarius, the Keystone Committee on National Policy on Diet and Health, the Food and Nutrition Board of the NAS, and the Food Advisory Committee of the FDA, where, among other duties, he served as chair of the FDA Working Panel to evaluate olestra. He also served three terms as chair of the Food Forum of the Food and Nutrition Board of the NAS and was a member of the NAS Food Safety Oversight Commission. Dr. Clydesdale currently serves on the National Academy IOM Committee that reviews the use of DRIs in nutrition labeling and on the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) council. He also is a special consultant to FDA.

Dr. Clydesdale currently serves on several advisory and editorial boards, is past Chair of the IFT's Expert Panel on Food Safety and Nutrition, Editor of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vice President of the Board of Trustees of the International Life Sciences Institute, and Chair of the Board of Trustees of the International Life Sciences Institute-North America. He is the recipient of the University of Massachusetts Distinguished Teaching Award and has received many other honors, including the IFT's William V. Cruess Award for teaching, its Babcock Hart Award for research, the Tressler Award, the IFT Carl R. Feller's Award, and the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology's Charles A. Black Award for scientific communication. He also received the IFT's highest honor, the Nicholas Appert Award, and was inducted as an honorary member of the "L'Association Internationale Nicolas Appert."

Dr. Clydesdale was selected as a plenary speaker at the 50th anniversary meeting of IFT, the keynote speaker at the 1987 meeting of the Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology (AIFST), a plenary speaker at the 75th anniversary of the Finnish Meat Institute in Helsinki, and a presenter at the Eighth International Congress in Food Science and Technology in Toronto and the Fourteenth South African International Congress on Food Science and Technology. He has been named a Fellow of the IFT and the American College of Nutrition, an honorary Fellow of the AIFST, and a centennial visiting professor by the Tokyo University of Fisheries. He served as President of Phi Tau Sigma, the food science honors society.

Dr. Clydesdale's research involves the study and regulation of physiochemical changes in food that alter nutritional bioavailability, physiological effects, food quality, food acceptability, overall health, and quality of life. This interest provides a unique perspective because it combines food science, nutrition, public health, and consumer acceptance.

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Vay Liang W. (Bill) Go, M.D.

Dr. Go is a Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He is an internationally renowned scientist and clinical investigator, an active and effective administrator, and an outstanding medical editor.

He was born in Ozamis City, Philippines, and received his medical degree from the University of Santo Tomas in 1963. He received his internal medicine and gastroenterology training at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and became a Professor of Medicine at the Mayo Clinic.

From 1975 to 1985, he co-established and directed the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Serum Immunodiagnostic Bank Program at the Mayo Clinic. This is the world's largest serum bank used by NCI in evaluating various tumor markers in diagnosing, prognosticating, and monitoring values in treating the various cancers evaluated by both NIH extramural and intramural programs. From 1985 to 1988, Dr. Go served simultaneously in three related capacities at NIH: (1) Director, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK); (2) Chairman of the Nutrition Coordinating Committee, Office of the Director, NIH, a position that has oversight responsibilities for trans-NIH biomedical and behavioral nutrition research and training; and (3) Executive Secretary of the Federal Interagency Nutrition Coordinating Committee, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Health, HHS, with key responsibilities for the Federal nutrition policy and other legislative nutrition agendas affecting trans-Federal agency programs.

From 1988 to 1992, Dr. Go was Executive Chair, Department of Medicine, at UCLA, providing academic leadership and stewardship of the Medicine Program in Research, Education, and Practice at eight academic medical centers. In 1993, he became Associate Director of the NCI-funded Clinical Nutrition Research Unit, Director of the UCLA Nutrition Education Program, and Co-Principal Investigator of the Nutrition Curriculum Development grants and the Cancer Prevention Curriculum program at UCLA. In 1996, Dr. Go cofounded the UCLA Center for Human Nutrition with Dr. David Heber. The Center provides leadership in nutritional sciences at UCLA by facilitating interdisciplinary research, providing patient care, and creating educational initiatives for health professionals and the public. Since 2003, Dr. Go has been Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Hirshberg Foundation, coordinating pancreatic cancer research programs at UCLA.

In addition, Dr. Go cofounded and was past President of the American Pancreatic Association and is the founding Editor and current Editor-in-Chief of the journal Pancreas, the official journal of the Japan Pancreas Society and the American Pancreatic Association. He has received numerous honors and recognition awards: Research Achievement Award, American Institute for Cancer Research (2001); Lifetime Achievement Award, American Pancreatic Association (2001); Mayo Foundation Distinguished Alumnus Award (2002); and American Gastroenterological Association/Miles & Shirley Fiterman Foundation Hugh R. Butt Award for Distinguished Achievement in Clinical Research in Hepatology or Nutrition (2003).

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Penny Kris-Etherton, Ph.D., R.D.

Dr. Kris-Etherton has been a member of the nutrition faculty in the Department of Nutritional Sciences at the Pennsylvania State University since 1979 and currently is Distinguished Professor of Nutrition. Her research program focuses on understanding the role of diet in the development of cardiovascular disease. She conducts controlled feeding studies that are designed to evaluate the effects of diet and specific nutrients on established and newly defined risk factors for coronary heart disease. Dr. Kris-Etherton is a Fellow in two AHA Councils (arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, and nutrition, metabolism, and physical activity) and serves on the AHA Nutrition Committee as the American Dietetic Association (ADA) liaison. She served on the Macronutrient DRI panel of the Food and Nutrition Board of the NAS and on the Committee on the Use of DRIs in Nutrition Labeling.

Dr. Kris-Etherton is a member of the Pennsylvania Cardiovascular Health Consortium Executive Committee, a statewide effort to reduce coronary heart disease. She is serving on the ADA committee that is reviewing the Medical Nutrition Therapy Evidence-Based Guide for Hyperlipidemia. She has authored or coauthored more than 130 publications on diet and cardiovascular risk factors. Presently, Dr. Kris-Etherton is treasurer of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences (ASNS). She is the recipient of the Lederle Award from ASNS and the ADA Foundation Award for Excellence in Research.

A graduate of Rochester Institute of Technology, Dr. Kris-Etherton received an M.S. in nutrition from Case Western Reserve University and a Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of Minnesota. She was the Katharine McCormick Scholar at Stanford University, where she completed a postdoctoral research fellowship in lipid metabolism.

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Joanne Lupton, Ph.D.

Dr. Lupton is a Regent's Professor and University Faculty Fellow at Texas A&M University and holder of the William W. Allen Endowed Chair in Human Nutrition. She was the founding chair of the Nutrition Faculty at Texas A&M and has received the Vice Chancellor's Award for Research and the Association of Former Students Award for Teaching from Texas A&M. Dr. Lupton has chaired the Macronutrient DRI panel for the Food and Nutrition Board, NAS from 2000 to the present. She also chaired the panel to determine the definition of dietary fiber (Food and Nutrition Board, NAS, 2001). She is a lifetime associate of the NAS.

Dr. Lupton is an associate editor of The Journal of Nutrition and of Nutrition and Cancer and a councilor of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences (ASNS). She is program leader for nutrition, physical fitness, and rehabilitation for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. Dr. Lupton's research is on the effect of diet on colon physiology and colon cancer, with a particular focus on dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. She has authored or coauthored more than 100 publications and 4 book chapters on diet and colon physiology and has mentored more than 50 graduate students. In 2004 she received the ASNS/Dannon Institute Mentorship Award. She has served on the Nutrition Study Section at NIH and as a visiting scientist at the FDA, where she received the FDA Commissioner's Special Citation for her work on the Task Force on Consumer Health Information for Better Nutrition. Her undergraduate degree is from Mt. Holyoke College, and her Ph.D. in nutrition is from the University of California at Davis.

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Theresa Nicklas, Dr.P.H., M.P.H.

Dr. Nicklas is Professor of Pediatrics at the USDA's Agricultural Research Service Children's Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics. Previously, she was Chair and Professor of the Department of Food and Nutrition at North Dakota State University for 2½ years.

Dr. Nicklas has 14 years of experience in spearheading the dietary studies of the Bogalusa Heart Study, and she continues to be an active consultant for this premier study. The Bogalusa Heart Study, which began in 1973, is an epidemiologic investigation of the early natural history of cardiovascular disease and the environmental determinants in a biracial pediatric population. She was chairperson of the school nutrition intervention working group of the multicenter trial called the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health, which was implemented in 96 schools across 4 states. She was Principal Investigator of a 4-year NIH grant focusing on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption by high school students. One of her current research interests is looking at eating patterns associated with or predictive of obesity between childhood and young adulthood. She also is studying the environmental influences on eating habits of preschool children. Dr. Nicklas has served as a consultant to the U.S. Army Research Institute; to USDA; and for organizations in Hungary, Taiwan, Australia, and New Zealand. Dr. Nicklas has published more than 150 scientific papers, 6 book chapters, and 5 monographs. Her areas of expertise are cardiovascular health and nutritional epidemiology, child nutrition, and health promotion and chronic disease prevention.

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Russell Pate, Ph.D.

Dr. Pate is a native of upstate New York and received a B.S. from Springfield College and an M.S. and a Ph.D. from the University of Oregon. In 1974 he joined the faculty of the University of South Carolina, where he now serves as Professor in the Department of Exercise Science and as an Associate Dean for Research in the School of Public Health. During leaves of absence from the University of South Carolina, he has held positions at the University of Virginia and the Medical College of Georgia.

Dr. Pate is an exercise physiologist, with interests in physical activity and physical fitness in children and the health implications of physical activity. He has published more than 158 scholarly papers and has authored or edited 5 books. His research has been supported by NIH, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the AHA, and several private foundations and corporations. He heads a research team that currently is supported by more than $2 million per year in Federal and other funding. He coordinated the effort that led to the development of the recommendation on physical activity and public health of the CDC and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). He serves on an IOM panel that is developing guidelines on prevention of childhood obesity.

Dr. Pate has served in several leadership positions with ACSM, and from 1993 to 1994 he served as that organization's President. He is a past president of the National Coalition on Promoting Physical Activity. He is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education, and he has served since 1988 as an appointed member of the South Carolina Governor's Council on Physical Fitness. In 1996 he received the Citation Award from ACSM, and in 1999 he received the Alliance Scholar Award of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance.

A lifelong distance runner, Dr. Pate competed in 3 U.S. Olympic Trial marathons and twice placed among the top 10 finishers in the Boston Marathon. For more than 20 years, he served as president of the Carolina Marathon Association, which hosted the U.S. Olympic Trials in the Women's Marathon in both 1996 and 2000.

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F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer, M.D., M.P.H.

Dr. Pi-Sunyer is Director of the Obesity Research Center and Chief of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, and Professor of Medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York. He is a Senior Attending Physician at St. Luke's-Roosevelt and at New York Presbyterian Hospitals. Dr. Pi-Sunyer is also Professor of Applied Physiology at Columbia Teachers College and on the faculty of the Institute of Human Nutrition at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.

His research interests are in the hormonal control of carbohydrate metabolism, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and food intake regulation. He has more than 450 publications in these areas and 2 books. Dr. Pi-Sunyer is a past president of the American Diabetes Association, of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity. He is a past Councilor of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine. He has been honored as a Fellow of NIH's Fogarty International Center. He served on the NIDDK Task Force for the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity and has been a member of numerous NIH study sections and review groups. He was the Chairman of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Task Force that produced the NIH Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation and Treatment of Obesity. He has been a consultant to the Federal Trade Commission and is on the Science Board of FDA. He has served on three expert panels of the Food and Nutrition Board of the IOM/NAS. He is a member of WHO's International Obesity Task Force and a member of the New York State Health Research Council. Dr. Pi-Sunyer is on the Steering Committee of the NIH Diabetes Prevention Program and is Co-Chair of the NIH Look AHEAD Trial. He is on the Data Safety Monitoring Board of the National Institute on Aging CALERIE Study. He was Editor-in-Chief of Obesity Research from 1997 to 2002 and is an Associate Editor of the International Journal of Obesity.

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Connie Weaver, Ph.D.

Dr. Weaver is Distinguished Professor and Head of the Department of Foods and Nutrition at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. In 2000, she also became Director of the NIH-funded Botanicals Center to study dietary supplements containing polyphenolics for age-related diseases. Her research interests include mineral bioavailability, calcium metabolism, and bone health.

She was a member of the NAS/IOM Food and Nutrition Board panel to develop new recommendations for requirements for calcium and related nutrients. Dr. Weaver is past president of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences and is on the Board of Trustees of the International Life Sciences Institute. For her contributions in teaching, Dr. Weaver was awarded Purdue University's Outstanding Teaching Award. In 1993 she was honored with the Purdue University Health Promotion Award for Women, and in 1997 she received the IFT's Babcock-Hart Award. In April 2003 she received the USDA A.O. Atwater Lecturership Award at the annual Experimental Biology meeting. She has published more than 160 articles.

Dr. Weaver received a B.S. and M.S. in food science and human nutrition from Oregon State University. She received a Ph.D. in food science and human nutrition from Florida State University and holds minors in chemistry and plant physiology.

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Table of Contents

A. Executive Summary

B. Introduction

C. Methodology

D. Science Base
  • Section 1. Aiming To Meet Recommended Intakes of Nutrients
  • Text
  • Tables
  • Section 2. Energy
  • Section 3. Discretionary Calories
  • Section 4. Fats
  • Section 5. Carbohydrates
  • Section 6. Selected Food Groups
  • Section 7. Fluid and Electrolytes
  • Section 8. Ethanol
  • Section 9. Food Safety
  • Section 10. Major Conclusions

    E.  Translating the Science into Dietary Guidance
  • Text
  • Tables and Figures
  • F.  Research Recommendations

    G. Appendices
  • Glossary
  • Description of USDA Analyses
  • Summary Tables from Systematic Review
  • IOM Tables
    (Institute of Medicine tables referenced in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report are available at
  • History of Dietary Guidelines
  • Summary of Recommendations
  • Biographical Sketches of DGAC Members
  • Acknowledgements

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