Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee

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Appendix E-2.33b: Search Plan and Results—Worksites

Part D. Chapter 4: Food Environment and Settings

1. What is the impact of worksite-based approaches on the dietary intake, quality, behaviors, and/or preference of employees? (see Appendix E-2.33a: Evidence Portfolio)

2. What is the impact of worksite policies on the dietary intake, quality, behaviors, and/or preferences of employees? (see Appendix E-2.34: Evidence Portfolio)

3. What is the impact of worksite-based approaches on the weight status of employees? (see Appendix E-2.35: Evidence Portfolio)

4. What is the impact of worksite policies on the weight status of employees? (see Appendix E-2.36: Evidence Portfolio)

Search Strategy

Dates Searched: 3/20/14

Databases: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane

Year Range: January, 2010 to March, 2014

Search Terms and Date(s):

MEDLINE:

Date(s) Searched: 3/20/14

Search Terms:

workplace[mh] OR workplace[tiab] OR employee[ti] OR employees[ti] OR worker[ti] OR workers[ti] OR worksite[tiab] OR worksites[tiab] OR "employee health"[tiab] OR employers[ti] OR employer[ti] OR “employer-based”[ti] OR “employer-based”[ti] OR employment[ti] OR occupational health services[mh] OR occupational health[mh] OR “occupational health”[tiab] OR “office-based”[tiab] OR “office based”[tiab]

AND

("body size"[tiab] OR body size[mh] OR obesity[tiab] OR obese[tiab] OR obesity[mh] OR overweight [tiab] OR overnutrition[tiab] OR adiposity[tiab] OR adiposity[mh] OR "body weight"[tiab] OR body weight[mh] OR “body-weight related”[tiab] OR "weight gain"[tiab] OR weight gain[mh] OR "weight loss"[tiab] OR Body Weights and Measures[Majr] OR overweight[tiab] OR "Body Composition"[mh] OR "body fat"[tiab] OR adipos*[tiab] OR weight[ti] OR waist[ti] OR "Anthropometry"[Mesh:noexp] OR “body mass index”[ti] OR BMI[ti] OR “weight status”[tiab] OR adipose tissue [mh] OR "healthy weight"[tiab] OR waist circumference[mh] OR “body fat mass”[tiab] OR body weight changes[mh] OR “waist circumference”[tiab] OR ideal body weight[mh])

OR

nutrition[tiab] OR diet[mh] OR diet[tiab] OR dietary[tiab] OR food preferences[mh] OR feeding behavior[mh] OR nutrition surveys[mh] OR food*[tiab] OR "Food and Beverages"[mh] OR "Eating"[mh] OR "caloric density"[tiab] OR “caloric intake”[tiab] OR caloric dens*[tiab] OR high calori*[tiab] OR energy dens*[tiab] OR fruit*[tiab] OR vegetable*[tiab] OR food analysis[mh] OR dietary intake*[tiab] OR food intake*[tiab] OR energy intake*[tiab] OR food habits[mh] OR dietary habit*[tiab] OR diet habit*[tiab] OR eating habit*[tiab] OR nutrient intake*[tiab] OR food choice*[tiab] OR portion size*[tiab] OR "diet quality"[tiab] OR dietary choice*[tiab] OR dietary change*[tiab] OR diet records[mh] OR nutritional status[mh] OR nutritional sciences[mh OR dietary pattern*[tiab] OR diet pattern*[tiab] OR eating pattern*[tiab] OR food pattern*[tiab] OR eating habit*[tiab] OR dietary habit*[tiab] OR food habit*[tiab] OR dietary profile*[tiab] OR food profile*[tiab] OR diet profile*[tiab] OR eating profile*[tiab] OR dietary guideline*[tiab] OR dietary recommendation*[tiab] OR food intake pattern*[tiab] OR dietary intake pattern*[tiab] OR eating style*[tiab] OR ((Macronutrient*[tiab] AND (Proportion*[tiab] OR composition[tiab] OR distribution*[tiab] OR percent*[tiab] OR diet composit*[tiab])) ORdietary score*[tiab] OR adequacy index*[tiab] OR kidmed[tiab] OR Food Score*[tiab] OR Diet Score*[tiab] OR MedDietScore[tiab] OR Dietary Pattern Score*[tiab] OR “healthy eating index”[tiab] OR ((index*[ti] OR score*[ti] OR indexes[ti] OR scoring[ti] OR indices[ti]) AND (dietary[ti] OR nutrient*[ti] OR eating[tiab] OR food[ti] OR food[mh] OR diet[ti] OR diet[mh]) AND (pattern* OR habit* OR profile*))

AND review[ptyp] OR systematic[sb] 

Embase:

Date(s) Searched: 3/20/14

Search Terms:

workplace:ti,ab OR employee*:ti,ab OR worker*:ti,ab OR worksite*:ti,ab OR "employee health":ti,ab OR employer*:ti,ab OR “employer-based”:ti,ab OR employment:ti,ab OR “occupational health”:ti,ab OR “office-based”:ti,ab OR “office based”:ti,ab OR 'work environment'/exp OR 'workplace'/exp OR 'employment'/exp OR 'occupation'/exp OR 'occupational health'/exp OR 'occupational health service'/exp OR 'employee'/exp

AND

'nutrition'/de OR nutrition:ab,ti OR 'diet'/exp OR 'diet':ab,ti OR 'dietary intake'/exp OR 'caloric intake':ab,ti OR 'caloric density':ab,ti OR 'dietary intake':ab,ti OR 'feeding behavior'/exp OR 'eating habit'/de OR 'food preference'/de OR 'child nutrition'/de OR 'food intake'/exp OR 'nutritional assessment'/de OR 'nutritional status'/de OR 'nutrition surveys':ab,ti OR 'fruit'/exp OR 'vegetable'/exp OR 'food'/exp OR 'energy density':ab,ti OR 'dietary quality':ab,ti OR 'eating pattern':ab,ti OR 'food pattern':ab,ti OR 'dietary habit':ab,ti OR 'food habit':ab,ti OR 'food intake':ab,ti OR 'portion size'/de OR 'food choice':ab,ti OR 'diet quality':ab,ti OR 'dietary profile':ab,ti OR 'food profile':ab,ti OR 'diet profile':ab,ti OR 'eating profile':ab,ti OR 'food intake pattern':ab,ti OR 'dietary intake pattern':ab,ti OR 'eating style':ab,ti OR 'macronutrient':ab,ti OR 'macronutrient'/de OR 'dietary score':ab,ti OR kidmed:ab,ti OR 'food score':ab,ti OR 'diet score':ab,ti OR 'meddietscore':ab,ti OR 'dietary pattern score':ab,ti OR 'healthy eating index':ab,ti OR (index:ab,ti OR score:ab,ti OR scoring:ab,ti OR indices:ab,ti AND (dietary:ab,ti OR nutrient:ab,ti OR eating:ab,ti OR food:ab,ti OR diet:ab,ti) AND (pattern:ab,ti OR habit:ab,ti OR profile:ab,ti))

OR

('body size'/de OR 'obesity'/exp OR overweight:ab,ti OR adiposity:ab,ti OR 'body weight'/exp OR 'weight gain'/de OR 'weight reduction':ab,ti OR 'body composition'/exp OR 'body fat':ab,ti OR 'anthropometry'/de OR 'body mass'/de OR bmi:ab,ti OR weight:ab,ti OR 'waist circumference'/de OR 'waist circumference':ab,ti OR 'waist hip ratio'/de OR 'body fat'/de OR 'adipose tissue'/exp ) NOT [medline]/lim

AND

[cochrane review]/lim OR [systematic review]/lim OR [meta analysis]/lim

Cochrane:

Date(s) Searched: 3/20/14

Search Terms:

(workplace OR worksite OR employee OR employer OR "employee health" OR "employee health service" OR "occupational health" OR office:ti) AND (diet* OR nutr* OR overweight OR health OR wellness OR healthy OR obes* OR bmi OR "body mass index" OR food* OR weight OR eating OR eat:ti,ab,kw)

Inclusion/ Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion criteria for the worksite-based systematic reviews included the following:

  • Human subjects
  • Subject populations from countries with high or very high human development, according to the 2012 Human Development Index
  • Anyone who works (adolescents, adults, older adults)
  • Subjects who were healthy or at elevated chronic disease risk
  • Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
  • The intervention or exposure in the reviewed articles was a worksite program, policy or practice targeting dietary behaviors and/or weight status
  • The comparator in the reviewed articles was different levels of intervention, different types of intervention, or no intervention/policy (a control group)
  • The outcome(s) was(were) dietary intake, dietary quality, dietary behaviors, dietary preferences, or weight-related measures

In addition, articles were included if they were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal between January 2010 and March 2014. If an author was included on more than one primary research article contained within a review that is similar in content, the paper with the most pertinent data/endpoints was included. If data/endpoints from both papers were appropriate, it was made clear that results were from the same intervention. If a primary research article was included in more than one review, the study overlap was noted.

Exclusion criteria for the dietary patterns systematic reviews included:

  • Animals and in vitro models
  • Subject populations from countries with medium or low human development, according to the Human Development Index
  • Children
  • Subjects who were hospitalized, diagnosed with disease, and/or receiving medical treatment
  • Literature reviews, editorials, and commentaries

Articles were excluded if they were not published in English, or were published before January 2010. Articles, abstracts, and presentations not published in peer-reviewed journals (e.g., websites, magazine articles, Federal reports) were also excluded. Finally, if an author was included on more than one review article or primary research article that was similar in content, the paper with the most pertinent data/endpoints was included, and others were excluded. If a primary research article was included in more than one review, the study overlap was noted.

Search Results

Date Updated: 12/10/14

Flowchart of search results including abstract screening, full-text screening, and duplication assessment with the final number of included studies.

Included Articles

The following articles have been determined to be relevant for inclusion in the body of evidence used for the systematic review questions:

Approaches & Diet

  1. Aneni EC, Robertson LL, et al. A systematic review of internet-based worksite wellness approaches for cardiovascular disease risk management: outcomes, challenges & opportunities. PLos One 2014; 9(1):e83594. PMID:24421894 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24421894
  2. Geaney F, Kelly C, et al. The effectiveness of workplace dietary modification interventions: a systematic review. Prev Med 2013; 57(5):438-447. PMID: 23850518 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23850518

Policies & Diet

  1. Kahn-Marshall JL, Gallant MP. Making healthy behaviors the easy choice for employees: a review of the literature on environmental and policy changes in worksite health promotion. Health Educ Behav 2012;39(6):752-776. PMID: 22872583 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22872583

Approaches & Weight

  1. Aneni EC, Robertson LL, et al. A systematic review of internet-based worksite wellness approaches for cardiovascular disease risk management: outcomes, challenges & opportunities. PLos One 2014; 9(1):e83594. PMID:24421894 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24421894
  2. Verweij LM, Coffeng J, et al. Meta-analyses of workplace physical activity and dietary behavior interventions on weight outcomes. Obes Rev 2011; 12(6):406-429. PMID: 20546142 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20546142

Policies & Weight

  1. Kahn-Marshall JL, Gallant MP. Making healthy behaviors the easy choice for employees: a review of the literature on environmental and policy changes in worksite health promotion. Health Educ Behav 2012;39(6):752-776. PMID: 22872583 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22872583