Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee

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Part D. Chapter 1: Food and Nutrient Intakes, and Health: Current Status and Trends—Tables - Continued

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Nutrients of Concern

Food Groups

Food Categories

Eating Behaviors

Health Conditions

Dietary Patterns Composition

Table D1.1 Mean intake of shortfall* and overconsumed** nutrients by age and race/ethnicity, for all ages 2+ WWEIA NHANES 2009-10.

Race/ethnicity

and age

n

Vit A* (RAE) (µg)

Vit D* (µg)

Vit E* (µg)

Vit C* (mg)

Folate* (DFE) (µg)

Calcium* (mg)

Magnesium* (mg)

Iron* (mg)

Potassium* (mg)

Dietary fiber* (g)

Saturated fat** (g)

Sodium** (mg)

Ages 2 to 5

Non-Hispanic White

305

606

6.9

4.8

77.3

405

1081

214

11.2

2070

11.7

21.0

2295

Non-Hispanic Black

150

537

5.8

5.5

86.5

447

879

196

12.6

1956

11.2

19.8

2492

Mexican-American

237

644

7.3

4.3

84.8

450

1057

210

11.8

2141

12.1

19.4

2157

All Hispanic

332

606

7.2

4.4

92.2

439

1031

209

11.5

2144

11.7

18.7

2189

Ages 6 to 11

Non-Hispanic White

371

618

6.3

5.9

64.9

519

1083

231

13.4

2151

13.6

23.2

2920

Non-Hispanic Black

229

582

5.3

6.2

96.1

526

981

227

14.4

2216

14

23.7

3032

Mexican-American

337

545

6

5.5

78.9

501

970

230

13.9

2175

15.3

22.6

2824

All Hispanic

474

550

5.9

5.5

78.4

518

985

231

13.9

2180

14.7

23.1

2913

Ages 12 to 19

Non-Hispanic White

425

611

5.9

7.2

67.5

578

1142

262

15.2

2364

14.3

27.7

3584

Non-Hispanic Black

275

502

4.1

7.2

106.7

498

974

234

14.1

2204

13

27.2

3348

Mexican-American

340

518

5

6.7

103.7

538

1074

267

15.4

2431

16.1

25.4

3454

All Hispanic

482

540

5.3

6.9

97.9

565

1081

265

15.7

2411

15.9

25.3

3434

Ages 20 and older

Non-Hispanic White

2786

682

5.4

8.4

86

559

1070

315

15.6

2868

17.3

26.9

3627

Non-Hispanic Black

1025

555

4.1

6.8

92.4

464

828

261

14.0

2364

13.6

25.2

3358

Mexican-American

1062

537

4.9

6.8

97.8

525

975

320

15.1

2758

20.0

23.7

3368

All Hispanic

1647

525

4.8

6.7

100.9

530

969

307

14.8

2711

18.4

23.6

3417

Ages 2 and older

Non-Hispanic White

3887

667

5.6

8.0

82.2

551

1079

299

15.2

2728

16.4

26.5

3511

Non-Hispanic Black

1679

549

4.3

6.7

94.3

473

865

251

14.0

2304

13.4

25.0

3273

Mexican-American

1976

545

5.3

6.4

95.2

518

997

291

14.7

2583

18.1

23.4

3206

All Hispanic

2935

537

5.2

6.4

97.1

526

992

284

14.5

2556

17.0

23.3

3252

Source: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. WWEIA Data Tables, NHANES 2009-2010. For standard errors, more nutrients and documentation, see: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349

Table D1.2 Usual Intakes from Food and Beverages compared to Dietary Reference Intakes -- females 19-50 years old by pregnancy status. Mean intake and % below EAR, AI, or above UL from food and beverages, WWEIA NHANES 2007-10.

Nutrient

Pregnancy status**

n

Mean

EAR

% Below EAR

UL

% Above UL

Energy (calorie/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

1848

Pregnant

133

2131

Protein (g/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

69.4

Pregnant

133

78.6

Dietary Fiber (g/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

14.4

25

5

Pregnant

133

17.3

28

8*

Vitamin A (µg RAE/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

549

500

48

3000

<3

Pregnant

133

728

550

26*

3000

<3

Folate (µg DFE/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

470

320

15

1000

<3

Pregnant

133

622

520

29*

1000

<3

Vitamin C (mg/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

76.6

60

45

2000

<3

Pregnant

133

121.0

70

30

2000

<3

Vitamin D (µg/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

3.9

10

>97

100

<3

Pregnant

133

5.6

10

90*

100

<3

Vitamin E -ATE (mg/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

6.9

12

95

Pregnant

133

7.4

12

94*

Calcium (mg/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

885

800

43

2500

<3

Pregnant

133

1123

800

24

2500

<3

Iron (mg/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

13.2

8.1

16

45

<3

Pregnant

133

16.9

22

96*

45

<3

Nutrient

Pregnancy status**

n

Mean

AI

% Below EAR

UL

% Above UL

Potassium (mg/day)

Non-pregnant

2957

2277

4700

<3

Pregnant

133

2660

4700

<3

Sodium (mg/day)
(overconsumed nutrient)

Non-pregnant

2957

3111

1500

>97

2300

84

Pregnant

133

3523

1500

>97

2300

>97

*The values flagged with an asterisk (*) may be less reliable; interpret with caution **Non-pregnant includes non-lactating.

Source: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. For more detailed tables and standard errors, see usual intake tables for pregnant women in Appendix E-2.4.

Table D1.3. Mean intake of nutrients of public health concern by income as a percentage of the poverty threshold, for all ages 2+ WWEIA NHANES 2009-10

Income as % of poverty level and age


n

Dietary fiber
g

Vitamin D
µg

Calcium
mg

Potassium
mg

Less than 131% poverty:

Ages 2-5

431

10.9

6.9

992

2036

Ages 6-11

496

13.9

6.3

1073

2254

Ages 12-19

503

14.1

5.4

1060

2319

Ages 20+

1755

15.5

4.7

942

2564

Ages 2+

3185

14.8

5.2

977

2451

131-185% poverty:

Ages 2-5

93

12.3

6.8

1090

2160

Ages 6-11

145

12.9

5.8

955

2062

Ages 12-19

162

13.4

3.8

939

2096

Ages 20+

743

15.6

4.7

971

2638

Ages 2+

1143

14.9

4.8

973

2499

Over 185% poverty:

Ages 2-5

266

12.3

6.8

1057

2070

Ages 6-11

422

14.2

5.9

1052

2134

Ages 12-19

482

14.6

5.8

1126

2417

Ages 20+

2730

17.7

5.3

1053

2866

Ages 2+

3900

16.9

5.5

1061

2735

Source: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. WWEIA Data Tables, NHANES 2009-2010. For standard errors, more nutrients and documentation, see: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349

Table D1.4 Prevalence (%) of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration levels for the U.S. population aged 1 year and older, NHANES 2003-2006

Group

Serum 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L*
%(95% conf interval)

Serum 25(OH)D < 40 nmol/L*
%(95% conf interval)

Serum 25(OH)D 30 -< 50 nmol/L*
%(95% conf interval)

Serum 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L*
%(95% conf interval)

Total, 1 year and older

8.1 (6.7 – 9.8)

17.2 (14.7 – 20.0)

23.6 (21.6 – 25.8)

0.9 (0.6 – 1.2)

Sex

Male

6.3 (5.0 – 7.9)

14.6 (12.3 – 17.4)

23.1 (20.8 – 25.6)

0.4 (0.3 – 0.7)

Female

9.9 (8.1 – 11.9)

19.6 (16.9 – 22.7)

24.1 (22.1 – 26.3)

1.3 (0.9 – 1.9)

Age category (years)

1 to 5

0.7 (0.4 – 1.3)

2.7 (1.8 – 4.0)

8.9 (7.1 – 11.0)

§

6 to 11

1.8 (1.3 – 2.6)

5.7 (4.2 – 7.7)

14.1 (11.5 – 17.2)

§

12 to 19

8.5 (6.5 – 11.2)

17.1 (13.8 – 21.0)

24.2 (21.3 – 27.3)

1.4 (0.9 – 2.1)

20 -39

9.5 (7.6 – 11.8)

19.7 (16.4 – 23.4)

26.2 (23.6 – 29.0)

1.5 (0.9 – 2.4)

40 -59

9.3 (7.4 – 11.7)

20.0 (16.6 – 23.9)

25.0 (22.2 – 28.0)

0.6‡ (0.3 – 1.2)

60 +

8.8 (7.3 – 10.5)

17.8 (15.5 – 20.4)

25.5 (23.7 – 27.4)

0.3‡ (0.1 – 0.6)

Race/Ethnicity

Non-Hispanic Whites

3.6 (3.0 – 4.4)

9.4 (7.9 – 11.2)

18.1 (16.2 – 20.2)

1.2 (0.8 – 1.7)

Non-Hispanic Blacks

31.1 (27.4 – 35.1)

51.6 (46.7 – 56.5)

39.5 (37.3 – 41.7)

§

Mexican Americans

11.3 (8.7 – 14.6)

24.4 (20.1 – 29.3)

32.9 (29.6 – 36.4)

§

1 ng/ml = 2.5 nmol/L

* Serum 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L = risk for deficiency

Serum 25(OH)D < 40 nmol/L = level set by IOM equal to EAR

Serum 25(OH)D between 30 -50 nmol/L = at risk of inadequacy

Serum 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L = maybe reason for concern about excess

‡ Estimate flagged: 30% ≤ RSE < 40% for the prevalence estimate

§ Estimate suppressed: RSE ≥ 40% for the prevalence estimate

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Second National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the U.S. Population. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nutritionreport/pdf/Nutrition_Book_complete508_final.pdf [PDF - 11.5 MB].

Table D1.5 Vitamin D: Food sources ranked by amounts of vitamin D and energy per standard food portions and per 100 grams of foods

Food

Standard Portion Size

Calories in Standard Portion1

Vitamin D in Standard Portion (µg)1

Calories per 100 grams1

Vitamin D per 100 grams (µg)1

Salmon, sockeye, canned

3 ounces

142

17.9

167

21.0

Trout, rainbow, farmed, cooked

3 ounces

143

16.2

168

19.0

Salmon, chinook, smoked

3 ounces

99

14.5

117

17.1

Swordfish, cooked

3 ounces

146

14.1

172

16.6

Sturgeon, mixed species, smoked

3 ounces

147

13.7

173

16.1

Salmon, pink, canned

3 ounces

117

12.3

138

14.5

Fish oil, cod liver

1 tsp

41

11.3

902

250

Cisco, smoked

3 ounces

150

11.3

177

13.3

Salmon, sockeye, cooked

3 ounces

144

11.1

169

13.1

Salmon, pink, cooked

3 ounces

130

11.1

153

13.0

Sturgeon, mixed species, cooked

3 ounces

115

11.0

135

12.9

Whitefish, mixed species, smoked

3 ounces

92

10.9

108

12.8

Mackerel, Pacific and jack, cooked

3 ounces

171

9.7

201

11.4

Salmon, coho, wild, cooked

3 ounces

118

9.6

139

11.3

Mushrooms, portabella, exposed to UV light, grilled

½ cup

18

7.9

29

13.1

Tuna, light, canned in oil, drained

3 ounces

168

5.7

198

6.7

Halibut, Atlantic and Pacific, cooked

3 ounces

94

4.9

111

5.8

Herring, Atlantic, cooked

3 ounces

173

4.6

203

5.4

Sardine, canned in oil, drained

3 ounces

177

4.1

208

4.8

Rockfish, Pacific, mixed species, cooked

3 ounces

93

3.9

109

4.6

Whole milk2

1 cup

149

3.2

61

1.3

Whole chocolate milk2

1 cup

208

3.2

83

1.3

Tilapia, cooked

3 ounces

109

3.1

128

3.7

Flatfish (flounder and sole), cooked

3 ounces

73

3.0

86

3.5

Reduced fat chocolate milk (2%)2

1 cup

190

3.0

76

1.2

Yogurt (various types and flavors)2

8 ounces

98-254

2.0-3.0

43-112

0.9-1.3

Milk (non-fat, 1% and 2%)2

1 cup

83-122

2.9

34-50

1.2

Soymilk2

1 cup

109

2.9

45

1.2

Low-fat chocolate milk (1%)2

1 cup

178

2.8

71

1.1

Fortified ready-to-eat cereals (various)2

1/3 -1 ¼ cup

74-247

0.2-2.5

248-443

0.8-8.6

Orange juice, fortified2

1 cup

117

2.5

47

1.0

Almond milk (all flavors)2

1 cup

91-120

2.4

38-50

1.0

Rice drink2

1 cup

113

2.4

47

1.0

Pork, cooked (various cuts)

3 ounces

122-390

0.2-2.2

143-459

0.2-2.6

Mushrooms, morel, raw

½ cup

10

1.7

31

5.1

Margarine (various)2

1 Tbsp

75-100

1.5

533-717

10.7

Mushrooms, Chanterelle, raw

½ cup

10

1.4

38

5.3

Egg, hard-boiled

1 large

78

1.1

155

2.2

1Source: U.S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. 2014. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata .

2Vitamin D fortified

Table D1.6. Calcium: Food sources ranked by amounts of calcium and energy per standard food portions and per 100 grams of foods

Food

Standard Portion Size

Calories in Standard Portion1

Calcium in Standard Portion (mg)1

Calories per 100 grams1

Calcium per 100 grams (mg)1

Fortified ready-to-eat cereals (various)2

¾ -1 ¼ cup

70-197

137-1000

234-394

455-3333

Pasteurized process American cheese

2 ounces

210

593

371

1045

Parmesan cheese, hard

1.5 ounces

167

503

392

1184

Plain yogurt, nonfat

8 ounces

127

452

56

199

Romano cheese

1.5 ounces

165

452

387

1064

Almond milk (all flavors)2

1 cup

91-120

451

38-50

188

Pasteurized process Swiss cheese

2 ounces

189

438

334

772

Tofu, raw, regular, prepared with calcium sulfate

½ cup

94

434

76

350

Gruyere cheese

1.5 ounces

176

430

413

1011

Vanilla yogurt, low-fat

8 ounces

193

388

85

171

Plain yogurt, low-fat

8 ounces

143

415

63

183

Pasteurized process American cheese food

2 ounces

187

387

330

682

Fruit yogurt, low-fat

8 ounces

238

383

105

169

Orange juice, calcium fortified2

1 cup

117

349

47

140

Soymilk (all flavors)2

1 cup

109

340

45

140

Ricotta cheese, part skim

½ cup

171

337

138

272

Swiss cheese

1.5 ounces

162

336

380

791

Evaporated milk

½ cup

170

329

135

261

Sardines, canned in oil, drained

3 ounces

177

325

208

382

Provolone cheese

1.5 ounces

149

321

351

756

Monterey cheese

1.5 ounces

159

317

373

746

Mustard spinach (tendergreen), raw

1 cup

33

315

22

210

Muenster cheese

1.5 ounces

156

305

368

717

Low-fat milk (1%)

1 cup

102

305

42

125

Mozzarella cheese, part-skim

1.5 ounces

128

304

301

716

Skim milk (nonfat)

1 cup

83

299

34

122

Reduced fat milk (2%)

1 cup

122

293

50

120

Colby cheese

1.5 ounces

167

291

394

685

Low-fat chocolate milk (1%)

1 cup

178

290

71

116

Cheddar cheese

1.5 ounces

173

287

406

675

Rice drink2

1 cup

113

283

47

118

Whole buttermilk

1 cup

152

282

62

115

Whole chocolate milk

1 cup

208

280

83

112

Whole milk

1 cup

149

276

61

113

Reduced fat chocolate milk (2%)

1 cup

190

273

76

109

Ricotta cheese, whole milk

½ cup

216

257

174

207

1Source: U.S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. 2014. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata .

2Calcium fortified

Table D1.7. Potassium: Food sources ranked by amounts of potassium and energy per standard food portions and per 100 grams of foods

Food

Standard Portion Size

Calories in Standard Portion1

Potassium in Standard Portion (mg)1

Calories per 100 grams1

Potassium per 100 grams (mg)1

Potato, baked, flesh and skin

1 medium

163

941

94

544

Prune juice, canned

1 cup

182

707

71

276

Carrot juice, canned

1 cup

94

689

40

292

Passion-fruit juice, yellow or purple

1 cup

126-148

687

51-60

278

Tomato paste, canned

¼ cup

54

669

82

1014

Beet greens, cooked from fresh

½ cup

19

654

27

909

Adzuki beans, cooked

½ cup

147

612

128

532

White beans, canned

½ cup

149

595

114

454

Plain yogurt, nonfat

1 cup

127

579

56

255

Tomato puree

½ cup

48

549

38

439

Sweet potato, baked in skin

1 medium

103

542

90

475

Salmon, Atlantic, wild, cooked

3 ounces

155

534

182

628

Clams, canned

3 ounces

121

534

142

628

Pomegranate juice

1 cup

134

533

54

214

Plain yogurt, low-fat

8 ounces

143

531

63

234

Tomato juice, canned

1 cup

41

527

17

217

Orange juice, fresh

1 cup

112

496

45

200

Soybeans, green, cooked

½ cup

127

485

141

539

Chard, swiss, cooked

½ cup

18

481

20

549

Lima beans, cooked

½ cup

108

478

115

508

Mackerel, various types, cooked

3 ounces

114-171

443-474

134-201

521-558

Vegetable juice, canned

1 cup

48

468

19

185

Chili with beans, canned

½ cup

144

467

112

365

Great northern beans, canned

½ cup

150

460

114

351

Yam, cooked

½ cup

79

456

116

670

Halibut, cooked

3 ounces

94

449

111

528

Tuna, yellowfin, cooked

3 ounces

111

448

130

527

Acorn squash, cooked

½ cup

58

448

56

437

Snapper, cooked

3 ounces

109

444

128

522

Soybeans, mature, cooked

½ cup

149

443

173

515

Tangerine juice, fresh

1 cup

106

440

43

178

Pink beans, cooked

½ cup

126

430

149

508

Chocolate milk (1%, 2% and whole)

1 cup

178-208

418-425

71-83

167-170

Amaranth leaves, cooked

½ cup

14

423

21

641

Banana

1 medium

105

422

89

358

Spinach cooked from fresh or canned

½ cup

21-25

370-419

23

346-466

Black turtle beans, cooked

½ cup

121

401

130

433

Peaches, dried, uncooked

¼ cup

96

399

239

996

Prunes, stewed

½ cup

133

398

107

321

Rockfish, Pacific, cooked

3 ounces

93

397

109

467

Rainbow trout, wild or farmed, cooked

3 ounces

128-143

381-383

150-168

448-450

Skim milk (nonfat)

1 cup

83

382

34

156

Refried beans, canned, traditional

½ cup

106

380

89

319

Apricots, dried, uncooked

¼ cup

78

378

241

1162

Pinto beans, cooked

½ cup

123

373

143

436

Lentils, cooked

½ cup

115

365

116

369

Avocado

½ cup

120

364

160

485

Tomato sauce, canned

½ cup

30

364

24

297

Plantains, slices, cooked

½ cup

89

358

116

465

Kidney beans, cooked

½ cup

113

357

127

403

Navy beans, cooked

½ cup

128

354

140

389

1Source: U.S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. 2014. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata.

Table D1.8. Dietary fiber: Food sources ranked by amounts of dietary fiber and energy per standard food portions and per 100 grams of foods

Food

Standard Portion Size

Calories in Standard Portion1

Dietary fiber in Standard Portion (g)1

Calories per 100 grams1

Dietary fiber per 100 grams (g)1

High fiber bran ready-to eat-cereal

– ¾ cup

60-81

9.1-14.3

200-260

29.3-47.5

Navy beans, cooked

½ cup

127

9.6

140

10.5

Small white beans, cooked

½ cup

127

9.3

142

10.4

Yellow beans, cooked

½ cup

127

9.2

144

10.4

Shredded wheat ready-to-eat cereal (various)

1-1 ¼ cup

155-220

5.0-9.0

321-373

9.6-15.0

Cranberry (roman) beans, cooked

½ cup

120

8.9

136

10.0

Adzuki beans, cooked

½ cup

147

8.4

128

7.3

French beans, cooked

½ cup

114

8.3

129

9.4

Split peas, cooked

½ cup

114

8.1

116

8.3

Chickpeas, canned

½ cup

176

8.1

139

6.4

Lentils, cooked

½ cup

115

7.8

116

7.9

Pinto beans, cooked

½ cup

122

7.7

143

9.0

Black turtle beans, cooked

½ cup

120

7.7

130

8.3

Mung beans, cooked

½ cup

106

7.7

105

7.6

Black beans, cooked

½ cup

114

7.5

132

8.7

Artichoke, globe or French, cooked

½ cup

45

7.2

53

8.6

Lima beans, cooked

½ cup

108

6.6

115

7.0

Great northern beans, canned

½ cup

149

6.4

114

4.9

White beans, canned

½ cup

149

6.3

114

4.8

Kidney beans, all types, cooked

½ cup

112

5.7

127

6.4

Pigeon peas, cooked

½ cup

102

5.6

121

6.7

Cowpeas, cooked

½ cup

99

5.6

116

6.5

Wheat bran flakes ready-to-eat cereal (various)

¾ cup

90-98

4.9-5.5

310-328

16.9-18.3

Pear

1 medium

101

5.5

57

3.1

Pumpkin seeds, whole, roasted

1 ounce

126

5.2

446

18.4

Baked beans, canned, plain

½ cup

119

5.2

94

4.1

Soybeans, cooked

½ cup

149

5.2

173

6.0

Plain rye wafer crackers

2 wafers

73

5.0

334

22.9

Avocado

½ cup

120

5.0

160

6.7

Broadbeans (fava beans), cooked

½ cup

94

4.6

110

5.4

Pink beans, cooked

½ cup

126

4.5

149

5.3

Apple, with skin

1 medium

95

4.4

52

2.4

Green peas, cooked (frsh, frzn, cnd)

½ cup

59-67

3.5-4.4

69-84

4.1-5.5

Refried beans, canned

½ cup

107

4.4

90

3.7

Chia seeds, dried

1 Tbsp

58

4.1

486

34.4

Bulgur, cooked

½ cup

76

4.1

83

4.5

Mixed vegetables, cooked from frozen

½ cup

59

4.0

65

4.4

Raspberries

½ cup

32

4.0

52

6.5

Blackberries

½ cup

31

3.8

43

5.3

Collards, cooked

½ cup

32

3.8

33

4.0

Soybeans, green, cooked

½ cup

127

3.8

141

4.2

Prunes, stewed

½ cup

133

3.8

107

3.1

Sweet potato, baked in skin

1 medium

103

3.8

90

3.3

Figs, dried

¼ cup

93

3.7

249

9.8

Pumpkin, canned

½ cup

42

3.6

34

2.9

Potato, baked, with skin

1 medium

163

3.6

94

2.1

Popcorn, air-popped

3 cups

93

3.5

387

14.5

Almonds

1 ounce

164

3.5

579

12.5

Pears, dried

¼ cup

118

3.4

262

7.5

Whole wheat spaghetti, cooked

½ cup

87

3.2

124

4.5

Parsnips, cooked

½ cup

55

3.1

71

4.0

Sunflower seed kernels, dry roasted

1 ounce

165

3.1

582

11.1

Orange

1 medium

69

3.1

49

2.2

Banana

1 medium

105

3.1

89

2.6

Guava

1 fruit

37

3.0

68

5.4

Oat bran muffin

1 small

178

3.0

270

4.6

Pearled barley, cooked

½ cup

97

3.0

123

3.8

Winter squash, cooked

½ cup

38

2.9

37

2.8

Dates

¼ cup

104

2.9

282

8.0

Pistachios, dry roasted

1 ounce

161

2.8

567

9.9

Pecans, oil roasted

1 ounce

203

2.7

715

9.5

Hazelnuts or filberts

1 ounce

178

2.7

628

9.7

Peanuts, oil roasted

1 ounce

170

2.7

599

9.4

Whole wheat paratha bread

1 ounce

92

2.7

326

9.6

Quinoa, cooked

½ cup

111

2.6

120

2.8

1Source: U.S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. 2014. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata.

Table D1.9. Iron: Food sources ranked by amounts of iron and energy per standard food portions and per 100 grams of foods

Food

Standard Portion Size

Calories in Standard Portion1

Iron in Standard Portion (mg)1

Calories per 100 grams1

Iron per 100 grams (mg)1

Organ meats (spleen, liver, giblets, heart, kidney or lung) various, cooked

3 ounces

84-235

4.5-33.5

99-277

5.3-39.4

Fortified ready-to-eat cereals (various)

½ -1 ½ cup

89-230

5.1-19.6

310-443

19.4-67.7

Fortified instant cereals (various), prepared

1 cup

174-241

5.1-14.7

62-96

2.1-6.7

Clams, cooked, breaded and fried

3 ounces

172

11.8

202

13.9

Octopus, cooked, moist heat

3 ounces

139

8.1

164

9.5

Coconut milk, canned

1 cup

445

7.5

197

3.3

Tofu, raw, regular, prep. w/ Ca sulfate

½ cup

94

6.6

76

5.4

Oysters, eastern, wild/farmed, cooked, dry heat

3 ounces

67

6.1-6.6

79

7.2-7.8

Oysters, cooked, breaded and fried

3 ounces

169

5.9

199

7.0

Mussels, blue, cooked, moist heat

3 ounces

146

5.7

172

6.7

Liverwurst spread

¼ cup

168

4.9

305

8.9

Soybeans, mature, cooked

½ cup

149

4.4

173

5.1

Chili with beans, canned

½ cup

128

4.4

112

3.4

Beef, plate steak, boneless, outside skirt, all grades, grilled2

3 ounces

240-248

4.3-4.4

282-292

5.1-5.2

Mushrooms, morel, raw

½ cup

10

4.0

31

12.2

White beans, canned or cooked

½ cup

125-149

3.3-3.9

114-139

3.0-3.7

Lentils, cooked

½ cup

115

3.3

116

3.3

Spinach, cooked from fresh, frzn or cnd

½ cup

21-32

1.9-3.2

23-34

2.0-3.6

Beef, shoulder pot roast, boneless, 0" fat, all grades, braised2

3 ounces

167-173

3.1

196-204

3.5-3.6

Beef, loin, tenderloin steak, boneless, 0" fat, all grades, grilled2

3 ounces

168-179

2.7-3.0

198-211

3.2-3.6

Ground beef (95% lean/5% fat), cooked

3 ounces

164

2.8

193

3.2

Black turtle beans, cooked

½ cup

121

2.7

130

2.9

Kidney beans, cooked

½ cup

113

2.6

127

2.9

Sardines, canned in oil, drained

3 ounces

177

2.5

208

2.9

Bagel, enriched

1 sm (3” dia)

182

2.5

264

3.6

Chickpeas, cooked

½ cup

134

2.4

164

2.9

Pumpkin/squash seed kernels, roasted

1 ounce

163

2.3

574

8.1

Adzuki beans, cooked

½ cup

147

2.3

128

2.0

Hearts of palm, canned

½ cup

21

2.3

28

3.1

Yardlong beans, cooked

½ cup

101

2.3

118

2.6

Lima beans, cooked

½ cup

108

2.3

115

2.4

Tomato puree, canned

½ cup

48

2.3

38

1.8

Navy beans, cooked

½ cup

127

2.2

140

2.4

Cowpeas, cooked

½ cup

100

2.2

116

2.5

1Source: U.S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory. 2014. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. Available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata.

2Lean and fat or lean only

Table D1.10. USDA Food Intake Patterns (Healthy U.S.-Style Patterns) recommended daily intake amounts, weekly amounts for vegetable and protein foods subgroups.

Energy Level of Pattern*

1,000

1,200

1,400

1,600

1,800

2,000

2,200

2,400

2,600

2,800

3,000

3,200

Food Group

Fruits

1 c

1 c

1½ c

1½ c

1½ c

2 c

2 c

2 c

2 c

2½ c

2½ c

2½ c

Vegetables

1 c

1½ c

1½ c

2 c

2½ c

2½ c

3 c

3 c

3½ c

3½ c

4 c

4 c

Dark green vegetables (c/wk)

½

1

1

2

2

Red/Orange vegetables (c/wk)

3

3

4

6

6

7

7

Dry beans and peas(c/wk)

½

½

½

1

2

2

3

3

Starchy vegetables (c/wk)

2

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

Other vegetables (c/wk)

4

4

5

5

7

7

Grains

3 oz eq

4 oz eq

5 oz eq

5 oz eq

6 oz eq

6 oz eq

7 oz eq

8 oz eq

9 oz eq

10 oz eq

10 oz eq

10 oz eq

Whole grains

1½ oz eq

2 oz eq

2½ oz eq

3 oz eq

3 oz eq

3 oz eq

3½ oz eq

4 oz eq

4½ oz eq

5 oz eq

5 oz eq

5 oz eq

Other grains

1½ oz eq

2 oz eq

2½ oz eq

2 oz eq

3 oz eq

3 oz eq

3½ oz eq

4 oz eq

4½ oz eq

5 oz eq

5 oz eq

5 oz eq

Protein Foods

2 oz eq

3 oz eq

4 oz eq

5 oz eq

5 oz eq

5½ oz eq

6 oz eq

6½ oz eq

6½ oz eq

7 oz eq

7 oz eq

7 oz eq

Meat, poultry, eggs (oz/wk)

10

14

19

23

23

26

28

31

31

33

33

33

Seafood (oz/wk)

3

4

6

8

8

8

9

10

10

10

10

10

Nuts seeds, soy (oz/wk)

2

2

3

4

4

5

5

5

5

6

6

6

Dairy

2 c

2.5 c

2.5 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

3 c

Oils

15 g

17 g

17 g

22 g

24 g

27 g

29 g

31 g

34 g

36 g

44 g

51g

Limits for:

Solid fats

10g

7g

7g

8g

11g

18g

18g

23g

25g

26g

31g

40g

Added Sugars

17g

12g

13g

14g

19g

30g

32g

39g

43g

45g

53g

69g

*Food group amounts shown in cup (c) or ounce equivalents (oz eq). Oils, solid fats, and added sugars are shown in grams (g).

Quantity equivalents for each food group are:

  • Grains, 1 ounce equivalent is: ½ cup cooked rice, pasta, or cooked cereal; 1 ounce dry pasta or rice; 1 slice bread; 1 small muffin (1 oz); 1 cup RTE cereal flakes.
  • Fruits and vegetables, 1 cup equivalent is: 1 cup raw or cooked fruit or vegetable, 1 cup fruit or vegetable juice, 2 cups leafy salad greens.
  • Protein Foods , 1 ounce equivalent is: 1 ounce lean meat, poultry, or fish; 1 egg; ¼ cup cooked dry beans or tofu; 1 Tbsp peanut butter; ½ ounce nuts or seeds.
  • Milk, 1 cup equivalent is: 1 cup milk or yogurt, 1½ ounces natural cheese such as Cheddar cheese or 2 ounces of processed cheese.

Source: Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, USDA. USDA Food Patterns. For more information see Appendix E-3.1: Adequacy of the USDA Food Patterns

Table D1.11. Energy levels used for assignment of individuals to USDA Food Intake Patterns

Males, age

Sedentary1 Males

Moderately Active2 Male

Active3 Male

2

1000

1000

1000

3

1000

1400

1400

4

1200

1400

1600

5

1200

1400

1600

6

1400

1600

1800

7

1400

1600

1800

8

1400

1600

2000

9

1600

1800

2000

10

1600

1800

2200

11

1800

2000

2200

12

1800

2200

2400

13

2000

2200

2600

14

2000

2400

2800

15

2200

2600

3000

16

2400

2800

3200

17

2400

2800

3200

18

2400

2800

3200

19-20

2600

2800

3000

21-25

2400

2800

3000

26-30

2400

2600

3000

31-35

2400

2600

3000

36-40

2400

2600

2800

41-45

2200

2600

2800

46-50

2200

2400

2800

51-55

2200

2400

2800

56-60

2200

2400

2600

61-65

2000

2400

2600

66-70

2000

2200

2600

71-75

2000

2200

2600

76 and up

2000

2200

2400

Females, age 

Sedentary1 Female

Moderately Active2 Female

Active3 Female

2

1000

1000

1000

3

1000

1200

1400

4

1200

1400

1400

5

1200

1400

1600

6

1200

1400

1600

7

1200

1600

1800

8

1400

1600

1800

9

1400

1600

1800

10

1400

1800

2000

11

1600

1800

2000

12

1600

2000

2200

13

1600

2000

2200

14

1800

2000

2400

15

1800

2000

2400

16

1800

2000

2400

17

1800

2000

2400

18

1800

2000

2400

19-20

2000

2200

2400

21-25

2000

2200

2400

26-30

1800

2000

2400

31-35

1800

2000

2200

36-40

1800

2000

2200

41-45

1800

2000

2200

46-50

1800

2000

2200

51-55

1600

1800

2200

56-60

1600

1800

2200

61-65

1600

1800

2000

66-70

1600

1800

2000

71-75

1600

1800

2000

76 and up

1600

1800

2000

1Sedentary means a lifestyle that includes only the physical activity of independent living.

2Moderately Active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking about 1.5 to 3 miles per day at 3 to 4 miles per hour, in addition to the activities of independent living.

3Active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking more than 3 miles per day at 3 to 4 miles per hour, in addition to the activities of independent living.

Source: Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, USDA. USDA Food Patterns. Available at http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/sites/default/files/usda_food_patterns/EstimatedCalorieNeedsPerDayTable.pdf [PDF - 115 KB]

Table D1.12. Percent of total energy intake from the 32 as-consumed food subcategories,* NHANES 2009-10.

Subcategory

% of total energy consumption

Cumulative %

BURGERS, SANDWICHES, and TACOS

13.8

13.8

DESSERTS and SWEET SNACKS

8.5

22.3

SUGAR-SWEETENED and DIET BEVERAGES

6.5

28.8

RICE, PASTA, GRAIN-BASED MIXED DISHES

5.5

34.3

CHIPS, CRACKERS, and SAVORY SNACKS

4.6

38.9

PIZZA

4.3

43.2

MEAT, POULTRY, SEAFOOD MIXED DISHES

3.9

47.1

VEGETABLES ( Incl. Beans and Peas, not Starchy)

3.8

50.9

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES

3.8

54.8

STARCHY VEGETABLES

3.8

58.6

YEAST BREADS AND TORTILLAS

3.8

62.4

HIGHER FAT MILK/YOGURT

3.5

65.8

BREAKFAST CEREALS AND BARS

3.5

69.3

POULTRY (Not incl. Deli and Mixed Dishes)

3.3

72.6

CANDY AND SUGARS

3.1

75.6

FRUIT (non-juice)

2.7

78.4

MEATS (Not incl. Deli and Mixed Dishes)

2.1

80.5

LOWFAT MILK/YOGURT

1.9

82.4

QUICK BREADS (Biscuits, Muffins, Pancakes, Waffles)

1.9

84.4

100% FRUIT JUICE

1.8

86.2

NUTS, SEEDS, AND SOY

1.7

87.9

EGGS

1.5

89.4

RICE AND PASTA

1.5

90.8

COFFEE AND TEA

1.4

92.3

SPREADS

1.3

93.6

SOUPS

1.3

95.0

DELI/CURED PRODUCTS (Meat and Poultry)

1.3

96.3

CHEESE

1.3

97.6

SEAFOOD (Not incl. Mixed Dishes)

1.1

98.7

CONDIMENTS AND GRAVIES

0.7

99.4

SALAD DRESSINGS

0.3

99.7

WATERS

0.0

99.7

*Collapsed from the 150 WWEIA Food Categories.

Note: does not total to 100% because baby foods and formulas are not included.

Source: Analysis of What We Eat in America (WWEIA) Food categories for NHANES 2009-10, population ages 2+. (see Appendix E-2.9)

Table D1.13. Percent of individuals consuming 1, 2, or 3 meals per day, and number of snacks consumed, by age/sex groups, NHANES 2009-2010

Group

3 meals total
%

3 meals + <1 snack
%

3 meals + 2-3 snacks
%

3 meals +>4 snacks
%

2 meals total
%

2 meals + <1 snack
%

2 meals + 2-3 snacks
%

2 meals + >4 snacks
%

1 meal total
%

1 meal + <1 snack
%

1 meal + 2-3 snacks
%

1 meal + >4 snacks
%

Males:

Ages 2-5

84

9

42

32

16

1

8

7

1

0

0

1

Ages 6-11

73

17

37

19

22

4

10

8

5

1

2

1

Ages 12-19

57

14

27

15

36

8

17

11

8

2

3

2

Ages 20-29

49

10

28

11

39

9

16

14

12

1

6

4

Ages 30-39

59

10

27

22

34

7

17

10

7

2

4

1

Ages 40-49

60

10

32

18

33

4

18

11

6

1

1

4

Ages 50-59

64

11

31

21

31

5

14

13

5

1

3

1

Ages 60-69

72

13

38

21

24

5

13

6

4

0

0

1

Ages 70+

64

18

34

12

32

7

18

7

3

1

1

2

20+

60

12

31

18

33

6

16

11

7

0

1

2

Females:

Ages 2-5

84

9

38

36

15

1

7

7

1

0

0

0

Ages 6-11

68

15

40

13

30

4

14

12

3

0

1

2

Ages 12-19

49

11

27

10

41

13

19

9

10

1

5

4

Ages 20-29

55

13

23

18

38

8

18

12

7

1

4

3

Ages 30-39

63

9

30

24

34

7

19

7

3

1

1

1

Ages 40-49

64

14

31

20

29

5

12

12

7

1

2

4

Ages 50-59

69

14

28

26

29

4

11

14

3

1

1

1

Ages 60-69

72

8

36

28

26

3

14

9

2

0

1

1

Ages 70+

70

19

32

18

29

7

14

8

1

0

1

0

20+

65

13

30

22

31

6

15

11

4

1

2

2

M/F 2+

63

12

31

20

31

6

15

10

5

1

2

2

Source: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. WWEIA Data Tables, NHANES 2009-2010. For standard errors and documentation, see: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349

Table D1.14. Percent of individuals skipping specific meals, by age/sex groups, NHANES 2009-2010

Age/sex

% skipping breakfast

% skipping lunch

% skipping dinner

Males:

Ages 2-5

6

7

4

Ages 6-11

13

13

6

Ages 12-19

26

19

7

Ages 20-29

28

23

12

Ages 30-39

19

22

8

Ages 40-49

16

25

6

Ages 50-59

12

23

7

Ages 60-69

9

18

6

Ages 70+

5

28

7

Females:

Ages 2-5

5

7

5

Ages 6-11

14

16

5

Ages 12-19

25

25

11

Ages 20-29

22

24

7

Ages 30-39

14

17

9

Ages 40-49

13

22

8

Ages 50-59

8

19

8

Ages 60-69

6

18

6

Ages 70+

4

21

6

Males and Females ages 2+

15

20

7

Source: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. WWEIA Data Tables, NHANES 2009-2010. For standard errors and documentation, see: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349

Table D1.15. Meal and snack intake over time—percent reporting consumption of each meal, by age/sex group, NHANES 2005-2006 to 2009-2010

Group

Breakfast 2005-2006
%

Breakfast 2007-2008
%

Breakfast 2009-2010
%

Lunch 2005-2006
%

Lunch 2007-2008
%

Lunch 2009-2010
%

Dinner 2005-2006
%

Dinner 2007-2008
%

Dinner 2009-2010
%

Snacks 2005-2006
%

Snacks 2007-2008
%

Snacks 2009-2010
%

Males:

Ages 2-5

96

94

94

92

91

93

96

96

96

99

98

97

Ages 6-11

91

87

87

88

90

87

97

94

94

98

95

96

Ages 12-19

71

74

74

78

81

81

92

88

93

93

95

92

Ages 20-29

69

72

72

73

82

77

88

91

88

98

94

96

Ages 30-39

82

81

81

85

77

78

90

89

92

95

95

96

Ages 40-49

83

84

84

79

79

75

94

94

94

99

97

97

Ages 50-59

88

88

88

79

80

77

92

91

93

95

98

97

Ages 60-69

91

91

91

74

74

82

95

91

94

94

95

94

Ages 70+

95

95

95

74

70

72

92

94

93

94

93

94

Ages 20+

83

84

84

78

78

77

92

92

92

96

95

96

Females:

Ages 2-5

97

95

95

91

90

93

95

95

95

96

97

97

Ages 6-11

90

86

86

88

91

84

96

94

95

97

98

98

Ages 12-19

71

75

75

80

82

75

92

89

89

94

95

94

Ages 20-29

74

78

78

79

81

76

89

94

93

94

96

95

Ages 30-39

88

86

86

83

77

83

92

92

91

97

95

97

Ages 40-49

85

87

87

79

82

78

93

94

92

97

98

94

Ages 50-59

92

92

92

81

83

81

94

95

92

98

98

97

Ages 60-69

93

94

94

79

76

82

95

94

94

98

99

97

Ages 70+

96

96

96

79

78

79

93

93

94

93

94

94

Ages 20+

87

88

88

80

80

80

93

94

93

96

97

96

M/F Ages 2+

85

85

85

80

81

80

93

92

93

96

96

96

Source: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. WWEIA Data Tables, NHANES 2005-06, 2007-08, 2009-2010. For standard errors and documentation, see: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349

Table D1.16. Percent of energy from each meal and snack occasion over time, by age/sex group, NHANES 2005-2006 to 2009-2010

Group

Breakfast 2005-2006
%

Breakfast 2007-2008
%

Breakfast 2009-2010
%

Lunch 2005-2006
%

Lunch 2007-2008
%

Lunch 2009-2010
%

Dinner 2005-2006
%

Dinner 2007-2008
%

Dinner 2009-2010
%

Snacks 2005-2006
%

Snacks 2007-2008
%

Snacks 2009-2010
%

Males:

Ages 2-5

19

20

20

26

24

26

27

27

26

28

28

28

Ages 6-11

17

19

19

26

27

26

30

29

31

26

25

25

Ages 12-19

14

15

15

26

26

25

35

33

33

26

26

26

Ages 20-29

15

15

15

24

26

25

34

34

34

28

26

26

Ages 30-39

15

15

15

29

25

24

32

35

36

24

22

25

Ages 40-49

15

15

15

22

24

22

39

37

37

24

23

25

Ages 50-59

16

16

16

23

25

22

38

36

37

23

23

25

Ages 60-69

19

19

19

21

21

23

39

37

39

21

24

20

Ages 70+

22

22

22

21

19

20

38

38

39

18

20

19

Ages 20+

16

16

16

24

24

23

36

36

36

24

23

24

Females:

Ages 2-5

20

19

19

24

23

24

26

26

27

30

29

29

Ages 6-11

19

19

19

26

27

24

31

30

33

24

26

24

Ages 12-19

14

16

16

25

27

25

35

30

33

26

28

26

Ages 20-29

15

16

16

26

25

23

33

36

35

26

25

25

Ages 30-39

17

18

18

26

23

25

34

35

33

23

25

24

Ages 40-49

16

17

17

24

24

23

37

36

35

23

25

24

Ages 50-59

18

18

18

25

24

23

37

37

36

21

23

23

Ages 60-69

19

18

18

22

22

22

39

36

37

20

23

23

Ages 70+

22

21

21

22

24

24

36

37

38

20

19

18

Ages 20+

17

18

18

24

24

23

35

36

35

23

24

23

M/F Ages 2+

17

17

17

25

25

24

35

35

35

24

24

24

Source: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. WWEIA Data Tables, NHANES 2005-06, 2007-08, 2009-2010. For standard errors and documentation, see: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349

Table D1.17. Percent of nutrient intake from snacks by age/sex group, NHANES 2009-2010

Age/sex

Food energy
%

Protein
%

Dietary fiber
%

Folate
%

Vitamin D
%

Calcium
%

Iron
%

Potas-sium
%

Sodium*
%

Caffeine
%

Saturated Fat*
%

Males:

Ages 2-5

28

19

25

18

24

27

18

26

18

36

26

Ages 6-11

25

15

22

17

21

23

18

22

16

41

24

Ages 12-19

26

14

23

17

17

23

18

21

16

60

23

Ages 20-29

26

14

22

21

22

28

20

24

15

48

18

Ages 30-39

25

12

19

17

17

24

17

21

13

45

17

Ages 40-49

25

14

21

19

20

25

17

22

14

48

21

Ages 50-59

25

14

21

18

17

24

17

21

13

43

23

Ages 60-69

20

11

16

13

14

22

13

18

11

37

17

Ages 70+

19

10

16

11

9

19

11

17

9

41

18

Females:

Ages 2-5

29

21

28

17

29

32

19

29

18

44

30

Ages 6-11

24

14

25

17

14

19

19

20

16

39

23

Ages 12-19

26

16

26

20

19

26

21

24

19

47

24

Ages 20-29

25

14

21

16

18

25

17

22

15

39

23

Ages 30-39

24

13

22

14

16

24

15

22

14

42

20

Ages 40-49

24

14

19

18

17

28

18

22

14

40

24

Ages 50-59

23

13

20

17

15

23

17

20

13

42

22

Ages 60-69

23

14

19

14

16

26

15

21

13

42

24

Ages 70+

18

10

15

11

13

20

11

16

10

35

18

*Overconsumed nutrient

Source: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA. WWEIA Data Tables, NHANES 2009-2010. For standard errors and documentation, see: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349

Table D1.18. Vegetable density (cup equivalents per 1000 calorie) for all vegetable subgroups, by point of purchase, NHANES 2003-2004 to 2009-2010

Point of purchase

2003-2004

2005-2006

2007-2008

2009-2010

DARK GREEN VEGETABLES (cup eq/1000 calorie)

Store

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.06

Restaurant

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.09

Quick serve restaurant

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

School/day care

0.01

0.02

0.01

0.02

Other

0.05

0.08

0.07

0.07

RED AND ORANGE VEGETABLES (cup eq/1000 calorie)

Store

n/a

0.16

0.16

0.16

Restaurant

n/a

0.23

0.23

0.20

Quick serve restaurant

n/a

0.22

0.17

0.17

School/day care

n/a

0.19

0.17

0.14

Other

n/a

0.23

0.22

0.22

STARCHY VEGETABLES (cup eq/1000 calorie)

Store

0.20

0.18

0.20

0.19

Restaurant

0.23

0.24

0.26

0.24

Quick serve restaurant

0.24

0.22

0.23

0.23

School/day care

0.16

0.17

0.21

0.12

Other

0.22

0.23

0.25

0.25

OTHER VEGETABLES (cup eq/1000 calorie)

Store

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.22

Restaurant

0.44

0.42

0.42

0.38

Quick serve restaurant

0.26

0.28

0.23

0.25

School/day care

0.16

0.16

0.13

0.12

Other

0.32

0.33

0.27

0.35

Source: Analysis of food group content, expressed as Food Pattern Equivalents, by point of purchase for What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, population ages 2+ (see Appendix E-2.15).

Table D1.19. Body mass index (BMI)*, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity, adults ages 20 years and older, NHANES 2009-2012

Group

Normal weight

% (SE)

Overweight
% (SE)

Obese
% (SE)

All adults ages 20 y and older

29.6 (0.9)

33.3 (0.8)

35.3 (0.8)

Men

26.5 (1.1)

38.1 (0.9)

34.5 (1.1)

Women

32.6 (1.0)

28.8 (1.1)

36.0 (1.0)

Age group (years)

20-39

36.8 (1.8)

29.5 (1.2)

31.5 (1.3)

40-59

24.5 (1.0)

35.9 (1.2)

38.0 (1.0)

≥60

25.4 (1.1)

35.7 (1.1)

37.5 (1.3)

Race/ethnicity**

Non-Hispanic White

31.2 (1.2)

33.5 (1.1)

33.4 (1.1)

Non-Hispanic Black

21.7 (0.9)

27.7 (1.1)

48.7 (1.4)

Hispanic

21.0 (1.0)

37.5 (1.2)

40.8 (1.2)

Race/ethnicity by sex

Men

Non-Hispanic White

26.7 (1.5)

38.4 (1.1)

34.3 (1.3)

Non-Hispanic Black

28.5 (1.1)

31.7 (1.5)

37.9 (1.5)

Hispanic

19.4 (1.4)

41.5 (1.5)

38.5 (1.5)

Women

Non-Hispanic White

35.7 (1.4)

28.8 (1.7)

32.5 (1.5)

Non-Hispanic Black

16.2 (1.2)

24.5 (1.4)

57.5 (1.7)

Hispanic

22.7 (1.1)

33.5 (1.4)

43.0 (1.5)

* Normal weight = 18.5 ≤ BMI <25 kg/m2; Overweight = 25≤ BMI <30 kg/m2; Obese= BMI = ≥30 kg/m2

Estimates are age-adjusted to the year 2000 standard population using three age groups: 20–39 years, 40–59 years, and 60 years and over; estimates are weighted; all pregnant women excluded from analysis. SE = standard error.

**Participants with a race-Hispanic origin categorized as “other” are included in overall estimates but are not separately reported.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Body Mass Index, Adults 20 y and over, NHANES 2009 -2012.

Table D1.20. Percent of overweight and obesity* by income in relation to poverty level, adults ages 20 years and older

Income as % of poverty level

% Overweight 1988-1994

% Obese 1988-1994

% Overweight 1999-2002

% Obese 1999-2002

% Overweight 2003-2006

% Obese 2003-2006

% Overweight 2007-2010

% Obese

2007-2010

Below 100%

31.5

28.1

30

34.7

30.7

35

32.5

37.2

100%-199%

31.9

26.1

33.2

34.1

30.6

35.9

33.2

37.3

200%-399%

33.3

22.7

36.5

32.1

33.3

35.7

31.8

36.8

400% or more

33.7

18.7

36.7

25.5

35.8

28.9

35.6

31.3

*Overweight = 25≤ BMI <30 kg/m2; Obese= BMI = ≥30 kg/m2 .

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Table 74. Healthy weight, overweight, and obesity among persons 20 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1960–1962 through 2007–2010. Health, United States, 2011. 2011. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2011/074.pdf [PDF - 225 KB].

Table D1.21. Trends in prevalence of abdominal obesity@ among adults, by age, sex, and race/ethnicity, NHANES*

Group

1999-2000

2001-2002

2003-2004

2005-2006

2007-2008

2009-2010

2011-2012

Overall

46.4

43.4

52.1

51.6

52.7

52.8

54.2

Men

37.1

39.1

42.5

44.8

43.4

43

43.5

Women

55.4

57.1

61.3

58.2

61.6

62.3

64.7

Age group (years)**

Men

20 - 39

25.3

26.5

28.7

29.9

28.5

NA

NA

40 - 59

41.8

43.9

49.8

52.7

49.4

NA

NA

60 +

52.8

55

57.2

60.9

60.4

NA

NA

Women

20 - 39

43.8

45.6

48.5

46.2

51.3

NA

NA

40 - 59

60.3

59.9

66.7

63.5

65.5

NA

NA

60 +

69.1

73.5

76.3

72.4

73.8

NA

NA

Race/ethnicity Overall

Non-Hispanic White

45.8

48.4

51.8

51.2

53.3

52.3

53.8

Non-Hispanic Black

52.4

52.3

57.5

57.1

57.4

60.2

60.9

Mexican American

48.1

49.9

55

51.4

55.5

58.4

57.4

Men

Non-Hispanic White

38.6

42.4

45.1

46.2

46.6

45.3

44.5

Non-Hispanic Black

31.5

30.6

35.1

40

38.9

39.5

41.5

Mexican American

35.8

34.5

38

34.8

41.6

43.4

43.2

Women

Non-Hispanic White

52.9

54.1

57.9

56.3

59.7

59.3

63.3

Non-Hispanic Black

69.7

70.1

75.7

71

72.3

77.7

75.9

Mexican American

60.2

66.9

73.8

70.5

71

75.5

71.6

@Abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC) is defined as WC >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women

*All data from 1999 -2012, except age group –source: Ford ES, Maynard LM, Li C. Trends in mean waist circumference and abdominal obesity among US adults, 1999-2012. JAMA. 2014;312(11):1151-3. PMID: 25226482. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25226482.

**Age group data only available from 1999 -2008 – source: Ford ES, Li C, Zhao G, Tsai J. Trends in obesity and abdominal obesity among adults in the United States from 1999-2008. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011;35(5):736-43. PMID: 20820173. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20820173.
Age adjustment was performed using the direct method using the projected year 2000 US population aged 20 years or older.

NA = data not available.

Table D1.22. Body mass index (BMI)* among children and adolescents ages 2 to 19 years, NHANES 2009-2012

Group

Normal weight

% (SE)

Overweight

% (SE)

Obese

% (SE)

Total

64.8 (0.8)

14.9 (0.6)

16.9 (0.6)

Sex

Boys

63.7 (1.0)

14.9 (0.8)

17.6 (0.9)

Girls

65.9 (1.3)

14.9 (0.8)

16.1 (0.7)

Age group (years)

2- 5

72.1 (1.5)

14.5 (1.3)

10.2 (0.9)

6-11

62.7 (1.1)

15.5 (0.8)

17.9 (0.9)

12-19

62.7 (1.2)

14.6 (0.8)

19.4 (1.1)

Race/ethnicity** 

Non-Hispanic White

68.2 (1.2)

14.1 (1.0)

14.0 (1.0)

Non-Hispanic Black

60.0 (1.4)

14.9 (0.7)

22.1 (1.2)

Hispanic

58.4 (0.9)

17.2 (0.7)

21.8 (0.6)

Boys

Non-Hispanic White

66.8 (1.6)

14.5 (1.5)

14.4 (1.5)

Non-Hispanic Black

61.2 (1.8)

13.6 (1.1)

21.9 (1.4)

Hispanic

57.1 (1.3)

16.4 (0.9)

23.7 (1.0)

Girls

Non-Hispanic White

69.8 (1.9)

13.7 (1.4)

13.6 (1.2)

Non-Hispanic Black

58.7 (2.0)

16.3 (1.3)

22.3 (2.0)

Hispanic

59.7 (1.2)

18.0 (0.9)

19.8 (1.1)

*5th -84th percentile = normal weight; 85th -94th percentile = overweight; ≥95th percentile = obese.

**Race-Hispanic origin classified as “other” not separately reported by included in overall estimates. Analyses based on age at the time of exam and exclude pregnant women.

SE = standard error.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Body Mass Index Among Children and Adolescents Ages 2 – 19 years, NHANES 2009 -2012.

Table D1.23. Hypertension, lipid profile, and diabetes by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, adults ages 20 years and older, NHANES 2009-2012

Group

Total cholesterol
% (SE)
≥ 240 mg/dl

HDL-C
% (SE)
<40 mg/dl

LDL-C
% (SE)
≥ 160 mg/dl

Triglycerides
%(SE)
≥ 200 mg/dl

Hypertension*@
% (SE)

Diabetes**
% (SE)

BMI

Normal weight

12.1 (0.8)

8.5 (0.7)

8 (0.8)

4.8 (0.7)

20.0 (1.1)

5.5 (0.8)

Over weight

15.2 (1)

18.8 (1)

12 (1.2)

12 (0.8)

26.4 (0.8)

9.0 (0.9)

Obese

11.7 (0.6)

30.2 (1.3)

11.2 (0.8)

17.2 (1.6)

39.2 (0.8)

20.3 (1.2)

Waist Circumference (cm)&

Men ≤102, Women ≤ 88

12.1 (0.8)

13.7 (0.8)

8 (0.9)

7.6 (0.8)

21.2 (0.9)

6.0 (0.9)

Men >102, Women >88

13.4 (0.6)

24.9 (1.1)

12.1 (0.9)

14.8 (1.3)

34.6 (0.6)

16.2 (0.9)

BMI, waist circumference (cm) by sex

Men

Normal weight

9.7 (1.1)

14.2 (1)

8.3 (1.3)

7 (1.4)

20.1 (1.2)

8.8 (1.6)

Over weight

13.7 (1)

26.8 (1.7)

11 (1.5)

15.6 (1.4)

28.1 (1.3)

10.0 (1.3)

Obese

10.9 (0.9)

42.2 (1.7)

10.2 (1.1)

20.2 (1.9)

39.1 (1.2)

21.6 (1.6)

≤102 cm

12 (1)

20.4 (1.1)

9.3 (0.9)

10.8 (1.2)

23.3 (1)

8.3 (1.2)

>102 cm

11.3 (1)

40.3 (1.6)

11 (1.3)

20.4 (2)

37.2 (1)

19.6 (1.3)

Women

Normal weight

13.6 (1.1)

4.3 (0.7)

7.7 (0.9)

3.2 (0.7)

19.9 (1.3)

3.2 (0.7)

Over weight

16.7 (1.4)

8.6 (0.9)

12.8 (1.5)

7 (1.1)

24.3 (1)

7.8 (0.8)

Obese

12.3 (0.8)

18.9 (1.4)

11.9 (1.2)

14.2 (1.9)

39.2 (1)

19.2 (1.1)

≤ 88 cm

12.1 (1.1)

3.6 (0.5)

5.9 (1.2)

2.4 (0.6)

17.8 (1.3)

2.6 (0.6)

> 88 cm

14.9 (0.7)

14.9 (1)

12.8 (0.9)

11.2 (1.2)

32.9 (0.7)

13.9 (0.9)

* Adults ages 18 years and older.

@Hypertension is defined as having measured systolic pressure of at least 140 mm Hg or diastolic pressure of at least 90 mm Hg and/or taking antihypertensive medication. Estimates are based on the average of up to 3 measurements.

**Total diabetes is the sum of self-reported diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. Diagnosed diabetes was obtained by self-report and excludes women who reported having diabetes only during pregnancy. Undiagnosed diabetes is defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of at least 126 mg/dL or a hemoglobin A1c of at least 6.5% and no reported physician diagnosis. Respondents had fasted for at least 8 hours and less than 24 hours. The definition of undiagnosed diabetes was based on recommendations from the American Diabetes Association. For more information, see Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2010. Diabetes Care 2010: 33 (suppl 1): S11-S61.

BMI= 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 = normal weight; BMI =25-29.9 kg/m2= overweight; BMI = ≥30 kg/m2= obese.

&Abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC) is defined as WC >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women

SE = standard error.

Source –

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), adult 20 years and over, NHANES 2009 -2012.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, adults 20 years and over, NHANES 2009-2012.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Prevalence of high blood pressure, adults 18 years and over, NHANES 2009-2012.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Total diabetes, in adults 20 years and over, NHANES 2009 -2012.

Table D1.24. Lipid profile by weight status, among children and adolescents, NHANES 2009-2012

Group

Total cholesterol*$
≥ 200 mg/dL
% (SE)

HDL-C*
< 40 mg/dL
% (SE)

LDL-C**#
≥ 130 mg/dL
% (SE)

Triglycerides**$
≥ 130 mg/dL
% (SE)

Body mass index (BMI)

Normal weight

6.9 (0.7)

7.7 (0.6)

6.7 (1.4)

6.5 (1.2)

Overweight

7.1 (1.2)

16.4 (2.3)

8.0 (2.1)

11.4 (2.7)

Obese

11.3 (1.5)

30.5 (2.5)

6.8 (1.8)

24.1 (3.4)

Weight Status by Sex

Boys

Normal weight

5.1 (0.7)

8.8 (1.1)

6.1 (2.0)@

5.8 (1.4)

Overweight

5.3 (1.4)

16.9 (3.2)

7.5 (2.7)@

11.6 (2.9)

Obese

13.2 (2.4)

35.1 (2.6)

8.8 (3.0)@

38.6 (5.0)

Girls

Normal weight

8.7 (1.1)

6.5 (0.9)

7.3 (1.8)

7.2 (2.5)@

Overweight

9.1 (2.1)

15.8 (2.6)

+

11.2 (4.4)@

Obese

9.1 (1.9)

25.5 (3.7)

4.6 (1.8)@

7.9 (2.4)

Analyses based on age at exam and exclude pregnant adolescents. Estimates are weighted.

$Cut-point criteria based on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents .

*Data for children and adolescents ages 6 to 19 years old.

**Data for children and adolescents ages 12 – 19 years old.

#LDL-C calculated using the Friedewald equation (which is valid when triglyceride <400 mg/dL).

Normal weight = 5th-84th percentile; overweight = 85th-94th percentile; obese = ≥95th percentile.

@Relative standard error (RSE)≥30 but < 40; + = RSE≥40.

SE = standard error.

Sources:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and non-HDL-cholesterol among children and adolescents ages 6 –19 years, NHANES 2009 -2012.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides among adolescents ages 12-19 years, NHANES 2009-2012.

Table D1.25. Prevalence of high and borderline high blood pressure (BP) in children, 2009-2012

Group

High BP*
% (SE)

Borderline high BP*
% (SE)

Total

1.7 (0.2)

8.3 (0.7)

Boys

1.7 (0.4)

12.0 (1.3)

Girls

1.6 (0.2)

4.6 (0.8)

Age group (years)

8 - 12

1.8 (0.4)

3.8 (0.7)

13 -17

1.5 (0.4)

12.4 (1.1)

Race/Ethnicity**

Non-Hispanic White

1.4 (0.3)

7.2 (0.9)

Non-Hispanic Black

2.3 (0.5)

12.1 (1.3)

Hispanic

1.8 (0.6)@

8.5 (1.4)

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Normal weight

1.4 (0.3)

5.4 (0.8)

Overweight

+

10.9 (1.6)

Obese

1.8 (0.6)@

16.2 (1.8)

Race/Ethnicity by Sex

Boys

Non-Hispanic White

**

10.8 (1.8)

Non-Hispanic Black

2.5 (0.7)

16.6 (2.0)

Hispanic

+

12.7 (2.3)

Girls

Non-Hispanic White

1.8 (0.4)

3.8 (1.1)

Non-Hispanic Black

+

7.5 (1.6)

Hispanic

1.5 (0.6)@

4.3( 1.0)

BMI by Sex

Boys

Normal weight

1.8 (0.5)

8.6 (1.5)

Overweight

+

16.3 (2.8)

Obese

1.8 (0.6)@

20.1 (3.0)

Girls

Normal weight

1.0 (0.3)

2.4 (0.8)@

Overweight

+

5.3 (1.2)

Obese

+

12.0 (2.7)

Analyses based on age at exam and exclude pregnant adolescents. Estimates are weighted. SE = standard error.

*Borderline high BP was defined as a systolic or diastolic BP ≥90th percentile but <95th percentile or BP levels ≥120/80 mm Hg and high BP was defined as a systolic or diastolic BP ≥95th percentile. Definitions are based on the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescent. Estimates are based on the average of up to 3 measurements.

**Race-Hispanic origin classified as “other” not separately reported but included in overall estimates

Normal weight = 5th -84th percentile; overweight = 85th -94th percentile; obese = ≥95th percentile

@ Relative standard error (RSE)≥30 but < 40; + = RSE≥40.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Prevalence of high and borderline high blood pressure (BP), children and adolescents, Ages 8-17 years, NHANES 2009-2012.

Table D1.26. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among youth ages 3 to 19* years with type 2 diabetes by race and ethnicity , compared to youth without type 2 diabetes, SEARCH population, 2001-2004

Children ages 3 to 19 years with type 2 diabetes  who are:

N

% (95% CI)

Children ages 3 to 19 without diabetes**  who are:

% (95% CI)

Overweight

Overweight

All

50

10.4 (6.7,15.9)

All

16.1 (15.0,17.3)

Non-Hispanic White

10

13.9 (6.3,28)

Non-Hispanic White

15.9 (14.3,17.6)

Non-Hispanic Black

15

8 (3.2,18.4)

Non-Hispanic Black

14.8 (13.4,16.3)

Hispanic

11

10.5 (4.2,23.8)

Hispanic

18.8 (16.6,21.1)

Asian Pacific Islander

7

14.9 (4.4,39.9)

Asian Pacific Islander

--

American Indian

7

3.3(0.4,20.7)

American Indian

--

Obese &

Obese &

All

331

79.4 (72.8, 84.8)

All

16.9 (15.8,18.0)

Non-Hispanic White

64

68.8 (53.2,81)

Non-Hispanic White

15.8 (14.3,17.5)

Non-Hispanic Black

111

91.1 (81,96.1)

Non-Hispanic Black

20.2 (18.6,21.9)

Hispanic

63

75 (59.8,85.7)

Hispanic

18.3 (16.2,20.5)

Asian Pacific Islander

34

68.2 (43.4,85.7)

Asian Pacific Islander

--

American Indian

59

88 (67.9, 96.2)

American Indian

--

* 93% of children with type 2 diabetes are 12-19 years old.

** US population estimates based on non-diabetic youth (NHANES 2001–2004).

-- NHANES does not contain large enough samples of Asian Pacific Islander I and American Indian to provide comparable estimates.

Overweight defined as BMI from the 85th to <95th percentile for age and sex

&Obesity defined as BMI ≥ 95th percentile.

Source: Liu LL, Lawrence JM, Davis C, Liese AD, Pettitt DJ, Pihoker C, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth with diabetes in USA: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Pediatr Diabetes. 2010;11(1):4-11. PMID: 19473302. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19473302.

Table D1.27. Prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in US adults, NHANES 2009-2012

Group

Hypertension*
% (SE)

Total Diabetes**

% (SE)

Overall

29.1 (0.6)

12.3 (0.8)

Men

29.8 (0.8)

14.0 (1.0)

Women

28.3 (0.6)

10.8 (0.8)

Age group (years)

18-39&

7.1 (0.4)

3.2 (0.5)

40-59

31.7 (1.2)

13.5 (1.3)

≥60

66.3 (1.3)

26 (1.7)

Race/ethnicity@

Non-Hispanic white

27.9 (0.7)

9.8 (0.8)

Non-Hispanic black

41.5 (0.9)

18.4 (1.3)

Hispanic

26.1 (0.9)

19.3 (1.5)

Race/ethnicity by sex

Men

Non-Hispanic White

28.9 (1.1)

11.7 (1.3)

Non-Hispanic Black

40.5 (1.1)

18.8 (1.8)

Hispanic

26.2 (1.4)

21 (1.7)

Women

Non-Hispanic White

26.8 (0.8)

8.0 (0.9)

Non-Hispanic Black

42.1 (1.3)

18.1 (1.5)

Hispanic

25.8 (0.8)

17.6 (1.9)

Estimates are age-adjusted to the year 2000 standard population. Estimates are weighted. All pregnant women excluded from analysis.

SE = standard error.

*Hypertension is reported for adults ages 18 yrs and older and is defined as having measured systolic pressure of at least 140 mm Hg or diastolic pressure of at least 90 mm Hg and/or taking antihypertensive medication. Estimates are based on the average of up to 3 measurements.

**Total diabetes is reported for adults ages 20 years and older and is the sum of self-reported diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. Diagnosed diabetes was obtained by self-report and excludes women who reported having diabetes only during pregnancy. Undiagnosed diabetes is defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of at least 126 mg/dLor a hemoglobin A1c of at least 6.5% and no reported physician diagnosis. Respondents had fasted for at least 8 hours and less than 24 hours.

& Data for diabetes is reported for adults ages 20 to 39 years old.

@Participants with a race-Hispanic origin categorized as “other” are included in overall estimates but are not separately reported.

Sources:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Prevalence of high blood pressure, adults 18 years and over, NHANES 2009-2012.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Total diabetes, in adults 20 years and over, NHANES 2009 -2012

Table D1.28. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes by sex, age, and race/ethnicity in children and adolescents*

Group

Cases with type 2 diabetes

Prevalence /1000 youth (95% CI)

Overall (< 20 years old)

819

0.46 (0.43 - 0.49)

Sex

Boys

314

0.35 (0.31 - 0.39)

Girls

505

0.58 (0.53 - 0.63)

Age group (years)

10 to 14

198

0.23 (0.2 - 0.26)

15 to 19

621

0.68 (0.63 - 0.74)

Race/ethnicity

Non-Hispanic White

172

0.17 (0.15 -0.2)

Non-Hispanic Black

209

1.06 (0.93 - 1.22)

Hispanic

317

0.79 (0.7 - 0.88)

Asian Pacific Islander

46

0.34 (0.26 - 0.46)

American Indian

75

1.2 (0.96 - 1.51)

*2009 SEARCH population

Source: Dabelea D, Mayer-Davis EJ, Saydah S, Imperatore G, Linder B, Divers J, et al. Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009. JAMA. 2014;311(17):1778-86. PMID: 24794371. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24794371.

Table D1.29. Cancer incidence and death rates per 100,000 persons by age category, sex and race and ethnicity, United States, 2007-2011*

Rates per 100,000 persons

Incidence Breast

Death Breast

Incidence Prostate

Death Prostate

Incidence Colorectal

Death Colorectal

Incidence Lung & Bronchus

Death Lung & Bronchus

Age (years), men and women

<20

0

0

0

0

0.1

0

0

0

20-34

1.8

0.9

0

0

1.2

0.6

0.3

0.1

35-44

9.3

5.2

0.6

0.1

4.1

2.5

1.3

1

45-54

22

14.5

9.7

1.6

14.2

9.1

8.6

7.7

55-64

25.5

21.7

32.7

8.5

21.2

17.6

21.4

19.7

65-74

21.3

20.6

36.3

20.1

23.9

21.9

31.7

30.6

75-84

14.4

21

16.8

36.8

23.2

27.3

27.9

29.8

>84

5.7

16.2

3.8

33

12.1

20.9

8.9

11.2

Men

all race/ethnicities

147.8

22.3

50.6

19.1

72.2

61.6

Non-Hispanic White

139.9

20.6

49.6

18.5

72.4

61.4

Non-Hispanic Black

223.9

48.9

62.3

27.7

93

75.7

Hispanic

121.8

18.5

44.3

15.8

39.6

30.5

Asian/Pacific Islander

79.3

10

43.1

13.1

49.4

34.7

American Indian/Alaska Native

71.5

21.2

45.5

19.2

49.5

50

Women

all race/ethnicities

124.6

22.2

38.2

13.5

51.1

38.5

Non-Hispanic White

128

21.7

37.3

13

53.8

39.8

Non-Hispanic Black

122.8

30.6

47.5

18.5

51.2

36.5

Hispanic

91.3

14.5

30.6

9.9

25.5

14

Asian/Pacific Isldander

93.6

11.3

32

9.5

28.1

18.4

American Indian/Alaska Native

79.3

15.2

35.5

15.6

34.7

32.4

*SEER 18, 2007-2011; rates (numbers) of new cases and deaths are per 100,000 persons and are age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.

Data are from selected statewide and metropolitan area cancer registries that meet the data quality criteria for all invasive cancer sites combined.

Rates cover approximately 95% of the U.S. population.

Source: Data are from NCI factsheets, and can be found in the SEER Cancer Statistics Review (http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/)

Breast cancer - http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html, Prostate Cancer - http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html

Colon and Rectum Cancer - http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/colorect.html, Lung and Bronchus Cancer - http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/lungb.html

Table D1.30. Estimates of the prevalence and number of US adults ages 50 years and older with osteoporosis (OP) and low bone mass (LBM) at either the femoral neck or lumber spine (NHANES 2005-2010)

Group

OP Prevalence*
% (SE)

OP N
(95% CI)**

BM Prevalence*
% (SE)

LBM, N
(95% CI)**

Both Sexes

Overall (ages 50 above)

10.3 (0.37)

10.2 (9.4,10.9)

43.9 (0.72)

43.4 (42.0,44.8)

Men

Overall

4.3 (0.40)

2.0 (1.6,2.3)

35.2 (0.93)

16.1 (15.3,17.0)

Age group (years)

50-59

3.4 (0.68)

0.7 (0.4,1.0)

30.7 (1.78)

6.3 (5.6,7.0)

60-69

3.3 (0.73)

0.5 (0.3,0.7)

32.9 (1.82)

4.6 (4.1,5.1)

70-79

5.0 (0.78)

0.4 (0.3,0.5)

41.8 (2.51)

3.1 (2.7,3.5)

80+

10.9 (1.7)

0.4 (0.3,0.6)

53.1 (2.82)

2.2 (1.9,2.4)

Race/ethnicity @

Non-Hispanic White

3.9 (0.39)

1.4 (1.1,1.6)

36.0 (1.13)

12.7 (11.9,13.4)

Non-Hispanic Black

1.3* (0.40)

0.1 (0.02,0.1)

21.3 (1.75)

0.9 (0.8,1.1)

Mexican American

5.9 (1.08)

0.1 (0.1,0.2)

38.3 (2.55)

0.9 (0.7,1.0)

Women

Overall

15.4 (0.63)

8.2 (7.5,8.9)

51.4 (0.93)

27.3 (26.3,28.3)

Age group (years)

50-59

6.8 (0.83)

1.5 (1.1,1.8)

49.3 (1.69)

10.6 (9.9,11.3)

60-69

12.3 (1.44)

1.9 (1.5,2.3)

53.4 (1.54)

8.2 (7.7,8.6)

70-79

25.7 (1.56)

2.4 (2.1,2.6)

51.8 (1.70)

4.7 (4.4,5.1)

80+

34.9 (2.44)

2.5 (2.2,2.8)

52.7 (3.07)

3.8 (3.3,4.2)

Race/ethnicity c

Non-Hispanic White

15.8 (0.81)

6.3 (5.7,7.0)

52.6 (1.17)

21.1 (20.2,22.0)

Non-Hispanic Black

7.7 (1.10)

0.4 (0.3,0.5)

36.2 (2.03)

2.0 (1.8,2.2)

Mexican American

20.4 (1.70)

0.5 (0.4,0.6)

47.8 (2.33)

1.1 (1.0,1.2)

* Prevalence from NHANES 2005-2010 has been adjusted to the age, sex, and race/ethnic distribution of the US population at the time of the 2010 Census using the direct method.

** Count expressed in millions; 95% CI=95% confidence limits

@ Other races not shown separately

OP = osteoporosis; LBM= low bone mass; NH= non-Hispanic. SE = standard error.

Osteoporosis and low bone mass were defined using the WHO criteria. Specifically, osteoporosis was defined as a T-score ≤ -2.5 at either the femoral neck or the lumbar spine. Among those without osteoporosis, low bone mass was defined as those with T-scores between -1.0 and -2.5 at either skeletal site. The reference group for calculation of the scores at the femoral neck for both men and women, consisted of 20-29 non-Hispanic White females from NHANES III. As there is no internationally recommended reference group for the lumbar spine, the reference group for calculation of these scores at the lumbar spine consisted of 30-year old White females from the DXA manufacturer reference database. These reference groups were used to calculate T-scores for all race/ethnic groups and for both sexes.

Source: Wright NC, Looker AC, Saag KG, Curtis JR, Delzell ES, Randall S, et al. The Recent Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in the United States Based on Bone Mineral Density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine. J Bone Miner Res. 2014. PMID: 24771492. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24771492.

Table D1.31 Studies included in the analysis of Dietary Patterns Composition. Abbreviations listed below are used in Figures D1.56 to D1.60

Abbreviation Used in Figures

Study/Cohort

Citation

Interventions—feeding studies

DASH

DASH – Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial

Karanja et al. 199997

OMNI CHO

OMNI PRO

OMNI UNSAT

OmniHeart trial – Carbohydrate-rich pattern

OmniHeart trial – higher-protein pattern

OmniHeart trial – higher unsaturated fat pattern

Swain et al. 2008101

Interventions—other

EVOO

NUTS

PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. Extra Virgin Olive Oil group

PREDIMED Mixed nuts group

Estruch et al. 201394

Cohorts--Med Diet score

SUN F (CVD endpoint)

SUN M (CVD endpoint)

Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) project. Female subjects

SUN project. Male subjects

Martínez-González et al. 201098

SUN (blood pressure endpoint)

Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) project

Núñez-Córdoba et al.. 200999

NHS (CVD endpoint)

Nurses’ Health Study

Fung et al. 200995

EPIC PAN F

EPIC PAN M

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity project (EPIC-PANACEA) Female subjects

EPIC-PANACEA Male subjects

Romaguera et al. 2009100

EPIC SPAIN

EPIC Spanish Cohort

Buckland et al. 201193

WAICAP

Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP)

Scarmeas et al. 2006112

NHS (cognitive decline endpoint)

Nurses’ Health Study

Samieri et al. 2013111

Cohorts/Other scores

WHI

Women’s Health Initiative

George et al. 201496

HPFS

Health Professionals Follow-up Study

McCullough et al. 2000114

EPIC POT F

EPIC POT M

EPIC Potsdam (Germany) study Female Subjects

EPIC Potsdam (Germany) study Male Subjects

von Ruesten et al. 2010109

Factor/Cluster Analyses

NHS (type 2 diabetes endpoint)

Nurses’ Health Study

Fung et al. 2004103

NHS (CHD endpoint)

Nurses’ Health Study

Fung et al. 2001104

HPFS

Health Professionals Follow-up Study

Hu et al. 2000105

FOS

Framingham Offspring Study

McKeown et al. 2002107

WHITEHALL

Whitehall II study

Brunner et al. 2008102

SHANGHAI

Shanghai Women’s Health Study

Villegas et al. 2010108

SINGAPORE

Singapore Chinese Health Study

Butler 2010110

Table D1.32. Composition of three USDA Food Patterns (Healthy U.S.-Style, Healthy Vegetarian, and Healthy Mediterranean-style) at the 2000 calorie level. Daily or weekly amounts from selected food groups, subgroups, and components.

Food group

Healthy US-style Pattern

Healthy Vegetarian Pattern

Healthy Med-style Pattern

Fruit

2 c per day

2 c per day

2 ½ c per day

Vegetables

2 ½ c per day

2 ½ c per day

2 ½ c per day

--Legumes

1 ½ c per wk

3 c per wk

1 ½ c per wk

Whole Grains

3 oz eq per day

3 oz eq per day

3 oz eq per day

Dairy

3 c per day

3 c per day

2 c per day

Protein Foods

5 ½ oz eq per day

3 ½ oz eq per day

6 ½ oz eq per day

--Meat

12 ½ oz eq/wk

--

12 ½ oz eq/wk

--Poultry

10 ½ oz eq/wk

--

10 ½ oz eq/wk

--Seafood

8 oz eq/wk

--

15 oz eq/wk

--Eggs

3 oz eq/wk

3 oz eq/wk

3 oz eq/wk

--Nuts/seeds

4 oz eq/wk

7 oz eq/wk

4 oz eq/wk

--Processed soy

½ oz eq/wk

8 oz eq/wk

½ oz eq/wk

Oils

27 g per day

27 g per day

27 g per day

Source: Food Pattern Modeling report: Appendix E-3.7 Developing Vegetarian and Mediterranean-style Food Patterns

Table D1.33. Nutrients in the three USDA Food Patterns (Healthy US Style, Healthy Vegetarian, and Healthy Mediterranean-style) at the 2000 calorie level as a percent of the goal or limit for a 19 to 30 year old woman.

Nutrient

Healthy US-style Pattern
% goal/limit

Healthy Vegetarian Pattern
% goal/limit

Healthy Med-style
Pattern
% goal/limit

Protein - %RDA

198

155

194

Protein - %calorie

18

14

18

Fat - %calorie

33

34

32

Saturated fat* - %calorie

8

8

8

CHO - %RDA

197

211

199

CHO-%calorie

51

55

52

Fiber - % goal

`109

126

112

Calcium - %RDA

127

133

100

Iron - %RDA

93

96

95

Vitamin D - %RDA

46

37

42

Potassium - %AI

71

70

71

Sodium* - %UL

78

61

73

*overconsumed nutrient

Source: Food Pattern Modeling report: Developing Vegetarian and Mediterranean-style Food Patterns (see Appendix E-3.7)

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