When reviewing questions and supporting evidence at the public meeting, the Committee will refer to studies in the scientific literature. These questions and citations are part of the Committee’s deliberative process and are considered draft material under consideration. The information provided here relates to the topics discussed at this meeting and do not represent all of the questions or literature the Committee may consider as it completes its work. Final questions, details of the literature searches, and final literature that contributed to the Committee’s conclusions will be available in the Committee’s final report and/or on www.DietaryGuidelines.gov and www.NEL.gov.

Sodium Working Group

What is the relationship between dietary sodium intake and blood pressure and other cardiovascular disease outcomes?

Existing Reports

  1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2005. Available from: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10925.
  2. Institute of Medicine. Sodium intake in populations: Assessment of evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2013. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18311.
  3. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Lifestyle Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: Systematic Evidence Review from the Lifestyle Work Group, 2013. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2013. Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cvd_adult/lifestyle/index.htm.

What is the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in children from age 2 to 18 years?

NEL Systematic Review (Update)

  1. Cotter J,Cotter MJ,Oliveira P,Cunha P,Polonia J. Salt intake in children 10-12 years old and its modification by active working practices in a school garden. J Hypertens. 2013;31(10):1966-71. PMID:24107730. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107730.
  2. Shi L,Krupp D,Remer T. Salt, fruit and vegetable consumption and blood pressure development: a longitudinal investigation in healthy children. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(4):662-71. PMID:24326147. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24326147.

What is the relationship between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease?

  1. Institute of Medicine. Sodium intake in populations: Assessment of evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2013. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18311.
  2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Lifestyle Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: Systematic Evidence Review from the Lifestyle Work Group, 2013. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2013. Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cvd_adult/lifestyle/index.htm.

NEL Systematic Review (Update)

  1. Cook NR,Appel LJ,Whelton PK. Lower levels of sodium intake and reduced cardiovascular risk. Circulation. 2014;129(9):981-9. PMID:24415713. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24415713.
  2. Joosten MM,Gansevoort RT,Mukamal KJ,Lambers Heerspink HJ,Geleijnse JM,Feskens EJ,Navis G,Bakker SJ. Sodium excretion and risk of developing coronary heart disease. Circulation. 2014;129(10):1121-8. PMID:24425751. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24425751.
  3. O'Donnell M,Mente A,Rangarajan S,McQueen MJ,Wang X,Liu L,Yan H,Lee SF,Mony P,Devanath A,Rosengren A,Lopez-Jaramillo P,Diaz R,Avezum A,Lanas F,Yusoff K,Iqbal R,Ilow R,Mohammadifard N,Gulec S,Yusufali AH,Kruger L,Yusuf R,Chifamba J,Kabali C,Dagenais G,Lear SA,Teo K,Yusuf S. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(7):612-23. PMID:25119607. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119607.
  4. Pfister R,Michels G,Sharp SJ,Luben R,Wareham NJ,Khaw KT. Estimated urinary sodium excretion and risk of heart failure in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk study. Eur J Heart Fail. 2014. PMID: 24464931. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464931.