When reviewing questions and supporting evidence at the public meeting, the Committee will refer to studies in the scientific literature. These questions and citations are part of the Committee’s deliberative process and are considered draft material under consideration. The information provided here relates to the topics discussed at this meeting and do not represent all of the questions or literature the Committee may consider as it completes its work. Final questions, details of the literature searches, and final literature that contributed to the Committee’s conclusions will be available in the Committee’s final report and/or on www.DietaryGuidelines.gov and www.NEL.gov.

SC 1: Food and Nutrient Intakes, and Health: Current Status and Trends

Through Subcommittee 1, Food and Nutrient Intakes, and Health: Current Status and Trends, the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee is using the following data sources in drafting its report. Some were existing data; others were requested from USDA or HHS agencies for the Committee’s deliberations.

Nutrients of Public Health Concern

How well do the USDA Food Patterns meet the nutritional needs of children 2 to 5 years of age and how do the recommended amounts compare to their current intakes? Given the relatively small empty calorie limit for this age group, how much flexibility is possible in food choices?

  1. Food Pattern Modeling Analysis: USDA Food Patternsd–Adequacy for Young Children. (Note: Draft report and tables available upon request.)

Dietary Patterns Composition

What is the composition of dietary patterns with evidence of positive health outcomes (e.g., Med, DASH, HEI, Vegetarian), and of patterns commonly consumed in the US? What are the similarities (and differences) within and amongst the dietary patterns with evidence of positive health outcomes and the commonly consumed dietary patterns? (Sources 1-23)

Using the Food Pattern Modeling process, can healthy eating patterns for vegetarians and for those who want to follow a Mediterranean-style diet be developed? How do these patterns differ from the USDA Food Patterns previously updated for the 2015 DGAs? (Source 24)

  1. Brunner EJ, Mosdol A, Witte DR, Martikainen P, Stafford M, Shipley MJ, et al. Dietary patterns and 15-y risks of major coronary events, diabetes, and mortality. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1414-21. PMID: 18469266. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18469266.
  2. Buckland G, Agudo A, Travier N, Huerta JM, Cirera L, Tormo MJ, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces mortality in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). Br J Nutr. 2011;106(10):1581-91. PMID: 21736834. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21736834.
  3. Esposito K, Marfella R, Ciotola M, Di Palo C, Giugliano F, Giugliano G, et al. Effect of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2004;292(12):1440-6. PMID: 15383514. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15383514.
  4. Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvado J, Covas MI, Corella D, Aros F, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(14):1279-90. PMID: 23432189. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23432189.
  5. Fung TT, Rexrode KM, Mantzoros CS, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Mediterranean diet and incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Circulation. 2009;119(8):1093-100. PMID: 19221219. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19221219.
  6. Fung TT, Schulze M, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(20):2235-40. PMID: 15534160. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15534160.
  7. Fung TT, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Hu FB. Dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(15):1857-62. PMID: 11493127. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11493127.
  8. George SM, Ballard-Barbash R, Manson JE, Reedy J, Shikany JM, Subar AF, et al. Comparing indices of diet quality with chronic disease mortality risk in postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study: evidence to inform national dietary guidance. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(6):616-25. PMID: 25035143. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25035143.
  9. Hu FB, Rimm E, Smith-Warner SA, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, et al. Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(2):243-9. PMID: 9989687. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9989687.
  10. Hu FB, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Willett WC. Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(4):912-21. PMID: 11010931. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11010931.
  11. Karanja NM, Obarzanek E, Lin PH, McCullough ML, Phillips KM, Swain JF, et al. Descriptive characteristics of the dietary patterns used in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial. DASH Collaborative Research Group. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999;99(8 Suppl):S19-27. PMID: 10450290. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10450290.
  12. Kokubo Y, Iso H, Ishihara J, Okada K, Inoue M, Tsugane S, et al. Association of dietary intake of soy, beans, and isoflavones with risk of cerebral and myocardial infarctions in Japanese populations: the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) study cohort I. Circulation. 2007;116(22):2553-62. PMID: 18025534. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18025534.
  13. Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Garcia-Lopez M, Bes-Rastrollo M, Toledo E, Martinez-Lapiscina EH, Delgado-Rodriguez M, et al. Mediterranean diet and the incidence of cardiovascular disease: a Spanish cohort. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21(4):237-44. PMID: 20096543. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20096543.
  14. McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Ascherio A, Variyam JN, et al. Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(5):1223-31. PMID: 11063453. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11063453.
  15. McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Rimm EB, Hu FB, et al. Diet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(6):1261-71. PMID: 12450892. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12450892.
  16. McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu S, Wilson PW, Jacques PF. Whole-grain intake is favorably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(2):390-8. PMID: 12145012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145012.
  17. Millen BE, Quatromoni PA, Pencina M, Kimokoti R, Nam BH, Cobain S, et al. Unique dietary patterns and chronic disease risk profiles of adult men: the Framingham nutrition studies. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(11):1723-34. PMID: 16256756. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16256756.
  18. Nunez-Cordoba JM, Valencia-Serrano F, Toledo E, Alonso A, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. The Mediterranean diet and incidence of hypertension: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169(3):339-46. PMID: 19037007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19037007.
  19. Quatromoni PA, Copenhafer DL, Demissie S, D’Agostino RB, O’Horo CE, Nam BH, et al. The internal validity of a dietary pattern analysis. The Framingham Nutrition Studies. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002;56(5):381-8. PMID: 11964437. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11964437.
  20. Romaguera D, Norat T, Mouw T, May AM, Bamia C, Slimani N, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower abdominal adiposity in European men and women. J Nutr. 2009;139(9):1728-37. PMID: 19571036. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19571036.
  21. Swain JF, McCarron PB, Hamilton EF, Sacks FM, Appel LJ. Characteristics of the diet patterns tested in the optimal macronutrient intake trial to prevent heart disease (OmniHeart): options for a heart-healthy diet. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(2):257-65. PMID: 18237574. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18237574.
  22. Villegas R, Yang G, Gao YT, Cai H, Li H, Zheng W, et al. Dietary patterns are associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women: the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39(3):889-99. PMID: 20231261. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20231261.
  23. von Ruesten A, Illner AK, Buijsse B, Heidemann C, Boeing H. Adherence to recommendations of the German food pyramid and risk of chronic diseases: results from the EPIC-Potsdam study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(11):1251-9. PMID: 20717136. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20717136.
  24. Food Pattern Modeling Analysis: Developing Vegetarian and Mediterranean-style Food Patterns. (Note: Draft report and tables available upon request.)