When reviewing questions and supporting evidence at the public meeting, the Committee will refer to studies in the scientific literature. These questions and citations are part of the Committee’s deliberative process and are considered draft material under consideration. The information provided here relates to the topics discussed at this meeting and do not represent all of the questions or literature the Committee may consider as it completes its work. Final questions, details of the literature searches, and final literature that contributed to the Committee’s conclusions will be available in the Committee’s final report and/or on www.DietaryGuidelines.gov and www.NEL.gov.

SC 4: Food and Physical Activity Environments

Food Access

What is the relationship between neighborhood and community food access in food retail settings and impact on individuals’ dietary intake and quality?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. An R, Sturm R. School and residential neighborhood food environment and diet among California youth. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(2):129-35. PMID: 22261208. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22261208
  2. Boone-Heinonen J, Gordon-Larsen P, Kiefe CI, Shikany JM, Lewis CE, Popkin BM. Fast food restaurants and food stores: longitudinal associations with diet in young to middle-aged adults: the CARDIA study. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(13):1162-70. PMID: 21747011. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21747011
  3. Carroll-Scott A, Gilstad-Hayden K, Rosenthal L, Peters SM, McCaslin C, Joyce R, et al. Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass index, diet, and physical activity: the role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments. Soc Sci Med. 2013;95:106-14. PMID: 23642646. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23642646
  4. Caspi CE, Kawachi I, Subramanian SV, Adamkiewicz G, Sorensen G. The relationship between diet and perceived and objective access to supermarkets among low-income housing residents. Soc Sci Med. 2012;75:1254-62. PMID: 22727742. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22727742
  5. Dean WR, Sharkey JR. Rural and urban differences in the associations between characteristics of the community food environment and fruit and vegetable intake. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2011;43(6):426-33. PMID: 21616721. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21616721
  6. Ding D, Sallis JF, Norman GJ, Saelens BE, Harris SK, Kerr J, et al. Community food environment, home food environment, and fruit and vegetable intake of children and adolescents. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2012;44(6):634-8. PMID: 21531177. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21531177
  7. Gittelsohn J, Vijayadeva V, Davison N, Ramirez V, Cheung LW, Murphy S, et al. A food store intervention trial improves caregiver psychosocial factors and children’s dietary intake in Hawaii. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18 Suppl 1:S84-90. PMID: 20107467. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20107467
  8. Gustafson A, Lewis S, Perkins S, Wilson C, Buckner E, Vail A. Neighbourhood and consumer food environment is associated with dietary intake among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants in Fayette County, Kentucky. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(7):1229-37. PMID: 23462377. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23462377
  9. Gustafson AA, Sharkey J, Samuel-Hodge CD, Jones-Smith JC, Cai J, Ammerman AS. Food Store Environment Modifies Intervention Effect on Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Women in North Carolina. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:932653. PMID: 22315676. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315676
  10. Jack D, Neckerman K, Schwartz-Soicher O, Lovasi GS, Quinn J, Richards C, et al. Socio-economic status, neighbourhood food environments and consumption of fruits and vegetables in New York City. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16:1197-205. PMID: 23388104. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23388104
  11. Jago R, Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Cullen KW, Thompson D. Distance to food stores & adolescent male fruit and vegetable consumption: mediation effects. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007;4:35. PMID: 17850673. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17850673
  12. Jilcott Pitts SB, Wu Q, McGuirt JT, Crawford TW, Keyserling TC, Ammerman AS. Associations between access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(11):1944-52. PMID: 23701901. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23701901
  13. Laska MN, Hearst MO, Forsyth A, Pasch KE, Lytle L. Neighbourhood food environments: are they associated with adolescent dietary intake, food purchases and weight status? Public Health Nutr. 2010;13(11):1757-63. PMID: 20529405. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20529405
  14. Moore LV, Diez Roux AV, Nettleton JA, Jacobs DR, Jr. Associations of the local food environment with diet quality—a comparison of assessments based on surveys and geographic information systems: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167(8):917-24. PMID: 18304960. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304960
  15. Ollberding NJ, Nigg CR, Geller KS, Horwath CC, Motl RW, Dishman RK. Food outlet accessibility and fruit and vegetable consumption. Am J Health Promot. 2012;26(6):366-70. PMID: 22747319. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22747319
  16. Powell LM, Zhao Z, Wang Y. Food prices and fruit and vegetable consumption among young American adults. Health Place. 2009;15(4):1064-70. PMID: 19523869. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19523869
  17. Sharkey JR, Johnson CM, Dean WR. Food access and perceptions of the community and household food environment as correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among rural seniors. BMC Geriatr. 2010;10:32. PMID: 20525208. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20525208
  18. Zenk SN, Lachance LL, Schulz AJ, Mentz G, Kannan S, Ridella W. Neighborhood retail food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population. Am J Health Promot. 2009;23(4):255-64. PMID: 19288847. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19288847

What is the relationship between neighborhood and community food access in food retail settings and weight status?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Ahern M, Brown C, Dukas S. A national study of the association between food environments and county-level health outcomes. J Rural Health. 2011;27(4):367-79. PMID: 21967380. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967380
  2. An R, Sturm R. School and residential neighborhood food environment and diet among California youth. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(2):129-35. PMID: 22261208. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22261208
  3. Block JP, Christakis NA, O’Malley AJ, Subramanian SV. Proximity to food establishments and body mass index in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort over 30 years. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174(10):1108-14. PMID: 21965186. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21965186
  4. Bodor JN, Rice JC, Farley TA, Swalm CM, Rose D. The association between obesity and urban food environments. J Urban Health. 2010;87(5):771-81. PMID: 20458548. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20458548
  5. Brown AF, Vargas RB, Ang A, Pebley AR. The neighborhood food resource environment and the health of residents with chronic conditions: the food resource environment and the health of residents. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(8):1137-44. PMID: 18483833. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18483833
  6. Carroll-Scott A, Gilstad-Hayden K, Rosenthal L, Peters SM, McCaslin C, Joyce R, et al. Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass index, diet, and physical activity: the role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments. Soc Sci Med. 2013;95:106-14. PMID: 23642646. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23642646
  7. Drewnowski A, Aggarwal A, Hurvitz PM, Monsivais P, Moudon AV. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price? Am J Public Health. 2012;102(8):e74-80. PMID: 22698052. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22698052
  8. Fiechtner L, Block J, Duncan DT, Gillman MW, Gortmaker SL, Melly SJ, et al. Proximity to supermarkets associated with higher body mass index among overweight and obese preschool-age children. Prev Med. 2013;56(3-4):218-21. PMID: 23219681. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23219681
  9. Ford PB, Dzewaltowski DA. Limited supermarket availability is not associated with obesity risk among participants in the Kansas WIC Program. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18(10):1944-51. PMID: 20057363. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20057363
  10. Galvez MP, Hong L, Choi E, Liao L, Godbold J, Brenner B. Childhood obesity and neighborhood food-store availability in an inner-city community. Acad Pediatr. 2009;9:339-43. PMID: 19560992. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19560992
  11. Gibson DM. The neighborhood food environment and adult weight status: estimates from longitudinal data. Am J Public Health. 2011;101(1):71-8. PMID: 21088263. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21088263
  12. Jilcott Pitts SB, Wu Q, McGuirt JT, Crawford TW, Keyserling TC, Ammerman AS. Associations between access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets, shopping patterns, fruit and vegetable consumption and health indicators among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(11):1944-52. PMID: 23701901. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23701901
  13. Laska MN, Hearst MO, Forsyth A, Pasch KE, Lytle L. Neighbourhood food environments: are they associated with adolescent dietary intake, food purchases and weight status? Public Health Nutr. 2010;13(11):1757-63. PMID: 20529405. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20529405
  14. Lee H. The role of local food availability in explaining obesity risk among young school-aged children. Soc Sci Med. 2012;74(8):1193-203. PMID: 22381683. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22381683
  15. Leung CW, Laraia BA, Kelly M, Nickleach D, Adler NE, Kushi LH, et al. The influence of neighborhood food stores on change in young girls’ body mass index. Am J Prev Med. 2011;41(1):43-51. PMID: 21665062. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21665062
  16. Liu GC, Wilson JS, Qi R, Ying J. Green neighborhoods, food retail and childhood overweight: differences by population density. Am J Health Promot. 2007;21(4 Suppl):317-25. PMID: 17465177. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17465177
  17. Morland K, Diez Roux AV, Wing S. Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Prev Med. 2006;30(4):333-9. PMID: 16530621. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16530621
  18. Morland KB, Evenson KR. Obesity prevalence and the local food environment. Health Place. 2009;15(2):491-5. PMID: 19022700. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19022700
  19. Rossen LM, Curriero FC, Cooley-Strickland M, Pollack KM. Food availability en route to school and anthropometric change in urban children. J Urban Health. 2013;90(4):653-66. PMID: 23392564. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23392564
  20. Rundle A, Neckerman KM, Freeman L, Lovasi GS, Purciel M, Quinn J, et al. Neighborhood food environment and walkability predict obesity in New York City. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117(3):442-7. PMID: 19337520. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19337520
  21. Salois MJ. Obesity and diabetes, the built environment, and the ‘local’ food economy in the United States, 2007. Econ Hum Biol. 2012;10(1):35-42. PMID: 21561816. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21561816
  22. Shier V, An R, Sturm R. Is there a robust relationship between neighbourhood food environment and childhood obesity in the USA? Public Health. 2012;126:723-30. PMID: 22898435. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22898435
  23. Stark JH, Neckerman K, Lovasi GS, Konty K, Quinn J, Arno P, et al. Neighbourhood food environments and body mass index among New York City adults. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013;67(9):736-42. PMID: 23851151. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23851151
  24. Sturm R, Datar A. Body mass index in elementary school children, metropolitan area food prices and food outlet density. Public Health. 2005;119(12):1059-68. PMID: 16140349. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16140349
  25. Viola D, Arno PS, Maroko AR, Schechter CB, Sohler N, Rundle A, et al. Overweight and obesity: can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy? J Public Health Policy. 2013;34(3):424-38. PMID: 23719294. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23719294
  26. Wang MC, Kim S, Gonzalez AA, MacLeod KE, Winkleby MA. Socioeconomic and food-related physical characteristics of the neighbourhood environment are associated with body mass index. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007;61:491-8. PMID: 17496257. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17496257

Early Care and Education

What is the impact of obesity prevention approaches in early care and education (ECE) programs on the weight status of children two to five years of age?

Existing Systematic Review

  1. Zhou YE, Emerson JS, Levine RS, Kihlberg CJ, Hull PC. Childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings: systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials. Am J Health Promot. 2014;28(4):e92-103. PMID: 24200332. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24200332

NEL Systematic Review (Literature Update: Aug 2012-Mar 2014)

  1. Alkon A, Crowley AA, Neelon SE, Hill S, Pan Y, Nguyen V, Rose R, Savage E, Forestieri N, Shipman L, Kotch JB. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children's body mass index. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):215. PMID:24580983. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24580983
  2. Cespedes J, Briceno G, Farkouh ME, Vedanthan R, Baxter J, Leal M, Boffetta P, Woodward M, Hunn M, Dennis R, Fuster V. Targeting preschool children to promote cardiovascular health: cluster randomized trial. Am J Med. 2013;126(1):27-35.e3. PMID:23062403. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23062403
  3. Cespedes J, Briceno G, Farkouh ME, Vedanthan R, Baxter J, Leal M, Boffetta P, Hunn M, Dennis R, Fuster V. Promotion of cardiovascular health in preschool children: 36-month cohort follow-up. Am J Med. 2013;126(12):1122-6. PMID:24262725. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24262725
  4. De Bock F, Breitenstein L, Fischer JE. Positive impact of a pre-school-based nutritional intervention on children's fruit and vegetable intake: results of a cluster-randomized trial. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(3):466-75. PMID:21859516. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21859516
  5. De Coen V, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Vereecken C, Verbestel V, Haerens L, Huybrechts I, Van Lippevelde W, Maes L. Effects of a 2-year healthy eating and physical activity intervention for 3-6-year-olds in communities of high and low socio-economic status: the POP (Prevention of Overweight among Pre-school and school children) project. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(9):1737-45. PMID:22397833. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22397833
  6. Herman A, Nelson BB, Teutsch C, Chung PJ. "Eat Healthy, Stay Active!": a coordinated intervention to improve nutrition and physical activity among Head Start parents, staff, and children. Am J Health Promot. 2012;27(1):e27-36. PMID:22950932. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22950932
  7. Natale RA, Lopez-Mitnik G, Uhlhorn SB, Asfour L, Messiah SE. Effect of a Child Care Center-Based Obesity Prevention Program on Body Mass Index and Nutrition Practices Among Preschool-Aged Children. Health Promot Pract. 2014; Epub (ahead of print). PMID:24662896. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24662896
  8. Yin Z, Parra-Medina D, Cordova A, He M, Trummer V, Sosa E, Gallion KJ, Sintes-Yallen A, Huang Y, Wu X, Acosta D, Kibbe D, Ramirez A. Miranos! Look at us, we are healthy! An environmental approach to early childhood obesity prevention. Child Obes. 2012;8(5):429-39. PMID:23061498. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23061498

Schools

What is the impact of school-based approaches on the dietary intake, quality, behaviors and/or preferences of school-aged children?

Existing Systematic Reviews

  1. Evans CE, Christian MS, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of school-based interventions to improve daily fruit and vegetable intake in children aged 5 to 12 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;96(4):889-901. PMID:22952187. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22952187
  2. Jensen JD, Hartmann H, et al. Economic incentives and nutritional behavior of children in the school setting: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 2011;69(11):660-74. PMID:22029832. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22029832
  3. Langellotto GA and Gupta A. Gardening increases vegetable consumption in school-aged children: a meta-analytical synthesis. Horttechnology 2012;22(4):430-445. http://horttech.ashspublications.org/content/22/4/430.abstract

What is the impact of school-based policies on the dietary intake, quality, behaviors and/or preferences of school-aged children?

Existing Systematic Reviews

  1. Chriqui JF, Pickel M, Story M. Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: a systematic review. JAMA Pediatr 2014;168(3):279-86. PMID:24473632. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24473632
  2. Jensen JD, Hartmann H, et al. Economic incentives and nutritional behavior of children in the school setting: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 2011;69(11):660-74. PMID:22029832. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22029832

What is the impact of school-based approaches on the weight status of school-aged children?

Existing Systematic Reviews

  1. Wang Y, Wu Y, Wilson RF, Bleich S, Cheskin L, Weston C, Showell N, Fawole O, Lau B, Segal J. Childhood obesity prevention programs: comparative effectiveness review and meta-analysis. Comparative effectiveness review No. 115. AHRQ Publication No. 13-EHC081-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; June 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0057623/pdf/TOC.pdf
  2. Waters E, de Silva-Sanigorski A, Hall BJ, Brown T, Campbell KJ, Gao Y, et al. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011; (12). Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001871.pub3/abstract

What is the impact of school-based policies on the weight-status of school-aged children?

Existing Systematic Reviews

  1. Chriqui JF, Pickel M, Story M. Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: a systematic review. JAMA Pediatr 2014;168(3):279-86. PMID:24473632. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24473632
  2. Williams AJ, Henley WE, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between childhood overweight and obesity and primary school diet and physical activity policies. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2013;10:101. PMID:23965018. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23965018

Worksite

What is the impact of worksite-based approaches on the dietary intake, quality, and behavior of employees?

Existing Systematic Reviews

  1. Aneni EC, Roberson LL, Maziak W, Agatston AS, Feldman T, Rouseff M, et al. A systematic review of internet-based worksite wellness approaches for cardiovascular disease risk management: outcomes, challenges & opportunities. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e83594. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24421894
  2. Geaney F, Kelly C, Greiner BA, Harrington JM, Perry IJ, Beirne P. The effectiveness of workplace dietary modification interventions: a systematic review. Prev Med. 2013;57(5):438-47. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23850518

What is the impact of worksite policies on the dietary intake, quality, and behavior of employees?

Existing Systematic Reviews

  1. Kahn-Marshall JL, Gallant MP. Making healthy behaviors the easy choice for employees: a review of the literature on environmental and policy changes in worksite health promotion. Health Educ Behav. 2012;39(6):752-76. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22872583

What is the impact of worksite-based approaches on the weight status of employees?

Existing Systematic Reviews

  1. Aneni EC, Roberson LL, Maziak W, Agatston AS, Feldman T, Rouseff M, et al. A systematic review of internet-based worksite wellness approaches for cardiovascular disease risk management: outcomes, challenges & opportunities. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e83594. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24421894
  2. Verweij LM, Coffeng J, van Mechelen W, Proper KI. Meta-analyses of workplace physical activity and dietary behaviour interventions on weight outcomes. Obes Rev. 2011;12(6):406-29. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20546142

What is the impact of worksite policies on the weight status of employees?

Existing Systematic Reviews

  1. Kahn-Marshall JL, Gallant MP. Making healthy behaviors the easy choice for employees: a review of the literature on environmental and policy changes in worksite health promotion. Health Educ Behav. 2012;39(6):752-76. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22872583

Sodium

What policies and environmental strategies can be used to promote recommended intake of sodium?

Existing Report

  1. Institute of Medicine. Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States. Washington, DC. National Academies Press. 2010.

Physical Activity

What is the relationship between physical activity, body weight, and health outcomes in children? (Source 2)

What is the relationship between physical activity and body weight? (Source 2)

What is the relationship between physical activity and cardiorespiratory health? (Source 2)

What is the relationship between physical activity and metabolic health? (Source 2)

What is the relationship between physical activity and musculoskeletal health? (Source 2)

What is the relationship between physical activity and incidence of breast and colon cancer? (Source 2)

What is the relationship between physical activity and cognitive health? (Source 2)

What is the relationship between physical activity and health outcomes in people with disabilities? (Sources 2, 3)

Does being physically active during pregnancy and the postpartum period provide health benefits? (Sources 2, 3)

What is the relationship between the amount and type of physical activity and the risk of adverse events? (Sources 2, 3)

What dose of physical activity is most likely to provide health benefits in children? (Sources 2, 3)

What dose of physical activity is most likely to provide health benefits in adults? (Sources 2, 3)

Are there any special considerations for dose of physical activity for older adults? (Source 2, 3)

What is the relationship between physical activity participation and interventions in school-based settings? (Source 1)

What is the relationship between physical activity participation and interventions to change the built environment? (Source 1)

What is the relationship between physical activity participation and interventions based in home settings? (Source 1)

What is the relationship between physical activity participation and interventions based in early childcare and education centers? (Source 1)

Existing Reports

  1. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report Subcommittee of the President’s Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report: Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among Youth. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012. Available from: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/midcourse/pag-mid-course-report-final.pdf
  2. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. Available from: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/report/pdf/CommitteeReport.pdf
  3. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. Available from: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf