When reviewing questions and supporting evidence at the public meeting, the Committee will refer to studies in the scientific literature. These questions and citations are part of the Committee’s deliberative process and are considered draft material under consideration. The information provided here relates to the topics discussed at this meeting and do not represent all of the questions or literature the Committee may consider as it completes its work. Final questions, details of the literature searches, and final literature that contributed to the Committee’s conclusions will be available in the Committee’s final report and/or on www.DietaryGuidelines.gov and www.NEL.gov.

SC 3: Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

Eating Out

What is the relationship between eating out and/or take away meals and body weight in children and adults?

Update to 2010 DGAC NEL Systematic Review

  1. Bes-Rastrollo M, Basterra-Gortari FJ, Sanchez-Villegas A, Marti A, Martinez JA, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. A prospective study of eating away-from-home meals and weight gain in a Mediterranean population: the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort. Public Health Nutr. 2010;13(9):1356-63. PubMed PMID: 19954575. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19954575
  2. Bisset S, Gauvin L, Potvin L, Paradis G. Association of body mass index and dietary restraint with changes in eating behaviour throughout late childhood and early adolescence: A five-year study. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Aug; 10 (8): 780-789. PMID: 17381909. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17381909
  3. Boggs DA, Rosenberg L, Coogan PF, Makambi KH, Adams-Campbell LL, Palmer JR. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women. Ethn Dis. 2013;23(4):445-51. PubMed PMID: 24392607. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24392607
  4. Duffey KJ, Gordon-Larsen P, Jacobs DR Jr, Williams OD, Popkin BM. Differential associations of fast food and restaurant food consumption with three-year change in body mass index: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan; 85(1): 201-208. PMID: 17209197. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17209197
  5. Duffey KJ, Gordon-Larsen P, Steffen LM, Jacobs DR, Jr., Popkin BM. Regular consumption from fast food establishments relative to other restaurants is differentially associated with metabolic outcomes in young adults. J Nutr. 2009;139(11):2113-8. PubMed PMID: 19776183. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19776183
  6. Fraser LK, Clarke GP, Cade JE, Edwards KL. Fast food and obesity: a spatial analysis in a large United Kingdom population of children aged 13-15. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(5):e77-85. PubMed PMID: 22516506. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22516506
  7. French SA et al. Fast food restaurant use among women in the Pound of Prevention study: Dietary, behavioral and demographic correlates. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Oct; 24 (10): 1, 353-1, 359. PMID: 11093299. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11093299
  8. Haines J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall M, Story M. Personal, behavioral and environmental risk and protective factors for adolescent overweight. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Nov; 15 (11): 2, 748-2, 760. PMID: 18070766. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18070766
  9. Laska MN, Murray DM, Lytle LA, Harnack LJ. Longitudinal associations between key dietary behaviors and weight gain over time: transitions through the adolescent years. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20(1):118-25. PubMed PMID: 21701567. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21701567
  10. Li F, Harmer P, Cardinal BJ, Bosworth M, Johnson-Shelton D, Moore JM, Acock A, Vongjaturapat N. Built environment and one-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Feb 15; 169 (4): 401-408. PMID: 19153214. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19153214
  11. MacFarlane A, Cleland V, Crawford D, Campbell K, Timperio A. Longitudinal examination of the family food environment and weight status among children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2009;4(4):343-52. PubMed PMID: 19922051. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19922051
  12. Niemeier HM, Raynor HA, Lloyd-Richardson EE, Rogers ML, Wing RR. Fast food consumption and breakfast skipping: Predictors of weight gain from adolescence to adulthood in a nationally representative sample. J Adolesc Health. 2006 Dec; 39 (6): 842-849. PMID: 17116514. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17116514
  13. Pereira MA, Kartashov AI, Ebbeling CB, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Jacobs DR Jr, Ludwig DS. Fast-food habits, weight gain and insulin resistance (the CARDIA study): 15-year prospective analysis. Lancet. 2005 Jan 1-7; 365 (9453): 36-42. PMID: 15639678. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15639678
  14. Taveras EM, Berkey CS, Rifas-Shiman SL, Ludwig DS, Rockett HR, Field AE, Colditz GA, Gillman MW. Association of consumption of fried food away from home with body mass index and diet quality in older children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2005 Oct; 116 (4): e518-24. PMID: 16199680. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16199680
  15. Thompson OM, Ballew C, Resnicow K, Must A, Bandini LG, Cyr H, Dietz WH. Food purchased away from home as a predictor of change in BMI z-score among girls. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Feb; 28 (2): 282-289. PMID: 14647177. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14647177
  16. Tin SP, Ho SY, Mak KH, Wan KL, Lam TH. Location of breakfast consumption predicts body mass index change in young Hong Kong children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36(7):925-30. PubMed PMID: 22234278. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22234278

Household Food Insecurity

What is the relationship between household food insecurity (HFI) and measures of dietary intake and body weight/BMI?

NEL Systematic Review


  1. Laraia BA, Siega-Riz AM, Gundersen C. Household food insecurity is associated with self-reported pregravid weight status, gestational weight gain, and pregnancy complications. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 May;110(5):692-701. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.02.014. PMID: 20430130. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20430130
  2. Olson CM, Strawderman MS. The relationship between food insecurity and obesity in rural childbearing women. J Rural Health. 2008 Winter;24(1):60-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2008.00138.x.PMID: 18257872. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18257872
  3. Whitaker RC, Sarin A. Change in food security status and change in weight are not associated in urban women with preschool children. J Nutr. 2007 Sep;137(9):2134-9. PMID: 17709454. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17709454
  4. Kim K, Frongillo EA. Participation in food assistance programs modifies the relation of food insecurity with weight and depression in elders. J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):1005-10. PMID: 17374668. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17374668

Young children

  1. Bhargava A, Jolliffe D, Howard LL. Socio-economic, behavioural and environmental factors predicted body weights and household food insecurity scores in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten. Br J Nutr. 2008 Aug;100(2):438-44. doi: 10.1017/S0007114508894366. Epub 2008 Feb 14. PMID: 18275621. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18275621
  2. Dubois L, Farmer A, Girard M, Porcherie M. Family food insufficiency is related to overweight among preschoolers. Soc Sci Med. 2006 Sep;63(6):1503-16. Epub 2006 Jun 13. PMID: 16777308. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16777308
  3. Jyoti DF, Frongillo EA, Jones SJ. Food insecurity affects school children's academic performance, weight gain, and social skills. J Nutr. 2005 Dec;135(12):2831-9. PubMed PMID: 16317128. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16317128
  4. Metallinos-Katsaras E, Must A, Gorman K. A longitudinal study of food insecurity on obesity in preschool children. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Dec;112(12):1949-58. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.08.031. PMID: 23174682. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23174682
  5. Rose D, Bodor N. Household food insecurity and overweight status in young children: results from the early childhood longitudinal study. Pediatrics. 2006;117:464-473. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0582. PMID: 16452367. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16452367


What is the relationship between use of self-monitoring strategies (focused on weight loss) and body weight outcomes (weight loss, maintenance, etc.) in adults and youth? (lifespan approach if possible)?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Adachi Y,Sato C,Yamatsu K,Ito S,Adachi K,Yamagami T. A randomized controlled trial on the long-term effects of a 1-month behavioral weight control program assisted by computer tailored advice. 2007. 45:459-70. PMID:16713991. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16713991
  2. Burke LE,Styn MA,Sereika SM,Conroy MB,Ye L,Glanz K,Sevick MA,Ewing LJ. Using mHealth technology to enhance self-monitoring for weight loss: a randomized trial. 2012. 43:20-6. PMID:22704741. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22704741
  3. de Niet J,Timman R,Bauer S,van den Akker E,de Klerk C,Kordy H,Passchier J. Short message service reduces dropout in childhood obesity treatment: a randomized controlled trial. 2012. 31:797-805. PMID:22468714. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22468714
  4. Harrison CL,Teede HJ,Lombard CB. How effective is self-weighing in the setting of a lifestyle intervention to reduce gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention? 2014. PMID:24738837. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24738837
  5. Steinberg DM,Levine EL,Lane I,Askew S,Foley PB,Puleo E,Bennett GG. Adherence to self-monitoring via interactive voice response technology in an eHealth intervention targeting weight gain prevention among Black women: randomized controlled trial. 2014. 16:e114. PMID:24780934. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24780934
  6. Steinberg DM,Tate DF,Bennett GG,Ennett S,Samuel-Hodge C,Ward DS. The efficacy of a daily self-weighing weight loss intervention using smart scales and e-mail. 2013. 21:1789-97. PMID:23512320. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23512320
  7. Wing RR,Papandonatos G,Fava JL,Gorin AA,Phelan S,McCaffery J,Tate DF. Maintaining large weight losses: the role of behavioral and psychological factors. 2008. 76:1015-21. PMID:19045969. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19045969
  8. Linde JA,Jeffery RW,French SA,Pronk NP,Boyle RG. Self-weighing in weight gain prevention and weight loss trials. 2005. 30:210-6. PMID:16336072. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16336072
  9. Turner-McGrievy GM,Beets MW,Moore JB,Kaczynski AT,Barr-Anderson DJ,Tate DF. Comparison of traditional versus mobile app self-monitoring of physical activity and dietary intake among overweight adults participating in an mHealth weight loss program. 2013. 20:513-8. PMID:23429637. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23429637
  10. Wing RR,Hamman RF,Bray GA,Delahanty L,Edelstein SL,Hill JO,Horton ES,Hoskin MA,Kriska A,Lachin J,Mayer-Davis EJ,Pi-Sunyer X,Regensteiner JG,Venditti B,Wylie-Rosett J. Achieving weight and activity goals among diabetes prevention program lifestyle participants. 2004. 12:1426-34. PMID:15483207. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15483207
  11. Johnson F, Wardle J. The association between weight loss and engagement with a web-based food and exercise diary in a commercial weight loss programme: a retrospective analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:83. PMID: 21810222. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21810222
  12. Kong A, Beresford SA, Alfano CM, Foster-Schubert KE, Neuhouser ML, Johnson DB, et al. Self-monitoring and eating-related behaviors are associated with 12-month weight loss in postmenopausal overweight-to-obese women. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(9):1428-35. PMID: 22795495. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22795495
  13. Turk MW, Elci OU, Wang J, Sereika SM, Ewing LJ, Acharya SD, et al. Self-monitoring as a mediator of weight loss in the SMART randomized clinical trial. Int J Behav Med. 2013;20(4):556-61. PMID: 22936524. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936524
  14. VanWormer JJ, Linde JA, Harnack LJ, Stovitz SD, Jeffery RW. Self-weighing frequency is associated with weight gain prevention over 2 years among working adults. Int J Behav Med. 2012;19(3):351-8. PMID: 21732212. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21732212
  15. VanWormer JJ, Martinez AM, Martinson BC, Crain AL, Benson GA, Cosentino DL, et al. Self-weighing promotes weight loss for obese adults. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(1):70-3. PMID: 18976879. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18976879
  16. Wing RR, Crane MM, Thomas JG, Kumar R, and Weinburg B. Improving weight loss outcomes of community interventions by incorporating behavioral strategies. Am J Public Health. 2010;100:2513-2519. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.18361.
  17. Bartfield JK, Stevens VJ, Jerome GJ, Batch BC, Kennedy BM, Vollmer WM, Harsha D, Appel LJ, Desmond R, Ard JD. Behavioral transitions and weight change patterns within the PREMIER trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Aug;19(8):1609-15. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.56. Epub 2011 Mar 31. PubMed PMID: 21455122; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3760712.
  18. Peterson ND, Middleton KR, Nackers LM, Medina KE, Milsom VA, Perri MG. Dietaryself-monitoring and long-term success with weight management. Obesity (SilverSpring). 2014 Jun 13. doi: 10.1002/oby.20807. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID:24931055.

Family Shared Meals

What is the relationship between frequency/regularity of family meals and measures of dietary intake in U.S. population?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Burgess-Champoux TL,Larson N,Neumark-Sztainer D,Hannan PJ,Story M. Are family meal patterns associated with overall diet quality during the transition from early to middle adolescence?. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009;41(2):79-86. PMID:19304252. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19304252
  2. Larson N,Fulkerson J,Story M,Neumark-Sztainer D. Shared meals among young adults are associated with better diet quality and predicted by family meal patterns during adolescence. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(5):883-93. PMID:22857517. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22857517

What is the relationship between frequency/regularity of family meals and measures of weight and obesity in U.S. population groups?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Haines J,McDonald J,O'Brien A,Sherry B,Bottino CJ,Schmidt ME,Taveras EM. Healthy Habits, Happy Homes: randomized trial to improve household routines for obesity prevention among preschool-aged children. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(11):1072-9. PMID:24019074. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24019074
  2. Miller DP. Associations between the home and school environments and child body mass index. Soc Sci Med. 2011;72(5):677-84. PMID:21227558. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21227558
  3. Gable S,Chang Y,Krull JL. Television watching and frequency of family meals are predictive of overweight onset and persistence in a national sample of school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(1):53-61. PMID:17197271. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17197271
  4. Sen B. Frequency of family dinner and adolescent body weight status: evidence from the national longitudinal survey of youth, 1997. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14(12):2266-76. PMID:17189555. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17189555
  5. Taveras EM,Rifas-Shiman SL,Berkey CS,Rockett HR,Field AE,Frazier AL,Colditz GA,Gillman MW. Family dinner and adolescent overweight. Obes Res. 2005;13(5):900-6. PMID:15919844. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15919844
  6. Fulkerson JA,Neumark-Sztainer D,Hannan PJ,Story M. Family meal frequency and weight status among adolescents: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16(11):2529-34. PMID:18719674. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18719674