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When reviewing questions and supporting evidence at the public meeting, the Committee will refer to studies in the scientific literature. These questions and citations are part of the Committee’s deliberative process and are considered draft material under consideration. The information provided here relates to the topics discussed at this meeting and do not represent all of the questions or literature the Committee may consider as it completes its work. Final questions, details of the literature searches, and final literature that contributed to the Committee’s conclusions will be available in the Committee’s final report and/or on www.DietaryGuidelines.gov and www.NEL.gov.

SC 2: Dietary Patterns, Foods and Nutrients, and Health Outcomes

Dietary Patterns during Preconception and Risk of Birth Defects

What is the relationship between dietary patterns during the preconception period and risk of neural tube defects?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Carmichael SL,Yang W,Feldkamp ML,Munger RG,Siega-Riz AM,Botto LD,Shaw G,National Birth Defects Prevention S. Reduced risks of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts with higher diet quality. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(2):121-6. PMID:21969361. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21969361
  2. Sotres-Alvarez D,Siega-Riz AM,Herring AH,Carmichael SL,Feldkamp ML,Hobbs CA,Olshan AF,National Birth Defects Prevention S. Maternal dietary patterns are associated with risk of neural tube and congenital heart defects. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1279-88. PMID:23639938. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23639938
  3. Vujkovic M,Steegers EA,Looman CW,Ocke MC,van der Spek PJ,Steegers-Theunissen RP. The maternal Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with a reduced risk of spina bifida in the offspring. BJOG. 2009;116(3):408-15. PMID:19187373. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187373

What is the relationship between dietary patterns during the preconception period and risk of congenital heart defects?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Obermann-Borst SA,Vujkovic M,de Vries JH,Wildhagen MF,Looman CW,de Jonge R,Steegers EA,Steegers-Theunissen RP. A maternal dietary pattern characterised by fish and seafood in association with the risk of congenital heart defects in the offspring. BJOG. 2011;118(10):1205-15. PMID:21585642. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21585642
  2. Sotres-Alvarez D,Siega-Riz AM,Herring AH,Carmichael SL,Feldkamp ML,Hobbs CA,Olshan AF,National Birth Defects Prevention S. Maternal dietary patterns are associated with risk of neural tube and congenital heart defects. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(11):1279-88. PMID:23639938. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23639938

What is the relationship between dietary patterns during the preconception period and risk of cleft lip/palate?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Carmichael SL,Yang W,Feldkamp ML,Munger RG,Siega-Riz AM,Botto LD,Shaw G,National Birth Defects Prevention S. Reduced risks of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts with higher diet quality. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(2):121-6. PMID:21969361. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21969361
  2. Vujkovic M,Ocke MC,van der Spek PJ,Yazdanpanah N,Steegers EA,Steegers-Theunissen RP. Maternal Western dietary patterns and the risk of developing a cleft lip with or without a cleft palate. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(2 Pt 1):378-84. PMID:17666614. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17666614

Dietary Patterns and Neurological and Psychological Illnesses

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of dementia/cognitive decline/Alzheimer’s disease?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Cherbuin N,Anstey KJ. The Mediterranean diet is not related to cognitive change in a large prospective investigation: the PATH Through Life study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012;20(7):635-9. PMID:21937919. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21937919
  2. Eskelinen MH,Ngandu T,Tuomilehto J,Soininen H,Kivipelto M. Midlife healthy-diet index and late-life dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra. 2011;1(1):103-12. PMID:22163237. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22163237
  3. Feart C,Samieri C,Rondeau V,Amieva H,Portet F,Dartigues JF,Scarmeas N,Barberger-Gateau P. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet, cognitive decline, and risk of dementia. JAMA. 2009;302(6):638-48. PMID:19671905. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19671905
  4. Gardener SL,Rainey-Smith SR,Barnes MB,Sohrabi HR,Weinborn M,Lim YY,Harrington K,Taddei K,Gu Y,Rembach A,Szoeke C,Ellis KA,Masters CL,Macaulay SL,Rowe CC,Ames D,Keogh JB,Scarmeas N,Martins RN. Dietary patterns and cognitive decline in an Australian study of ageing. Mol Psychiatry. 2014. PMID:25070537. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25070537
  5. Gu Y,Luchsinger JA,Stern Y,Scarmeas N. Mediterranean diet, inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers, and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22(2):483-92. PMID:20847399. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20847399
  6. Gu Y,Nieves JW,Stern Y,Luchsinger JA,Scarmeas N. Food combination and Alzheimer disease risk: a protective diet. Arch Neurol. 2010;67(6):699-706. PMID:20385883. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20385883
  7. Kesse-Guyot E,Amieva H,Castetbon K,Henegar A,Ferry M,Jeandel C,Hercberg S,Galan P,Group SVMR. Adherence to nutritional recommendations and subsequent cognitive performance: findings from the prospective Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals 2 (SU.VI.MAX 2) study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(1):200-10. PMID:21106918. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21106918
  8. Kesse-Guyot E,Andreeva VA,Jeandel C,Ferry M,Hercberg S,Galan P. A healthy dietary pattern at midlife is associated with subsequent cognitive performance. J Nutr. 2012;142(5):909-15. PMID:22457391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457391
  9. Kesse-Guyot E,Andreeva VA,Lassale C,Ferry M,Jeandel C,Hercberg S,Galan P,Group SVMR. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function: a French study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(2):369-76. PMID:23283500. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23283500
  10. Kesse-Guyot E,Andreeva VA,Ducros V,Jeandel C,Julia C,Hercberg S,Galan P. Carotenoid-rich dietary patterns during midlife and subsequent cognitive function. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(5):915-23. PMID:24073964. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24073964
  11. Koyama A, Houston DK, Simonsick EM, Lee JS, Ayonayon HN, Shahar DR, Rosano C, Satterfield S, Yaffe K. Association Between the Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Decline in a Biracial Population. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Jul 3. PMID:24994847
  12. Martinez-Lapiscina EH,Clavero P,Toledo E,Estruch R,Salas-Salvado J,San Julian B,Sanchez-Tainta A,Ros E,Valls-Pedret C,Martinez-Gonzalez MA. Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84(12):1318-25. PMID:23670794. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23670794
  13. Nicolas AS,Faisant C,Nourhashemi F,Lanzmann-Petithory D,Vellas B. Associations between nutritional intake and cognitive function in a healthy ageing sample: A 4-year reassessment. European Journal of Geriatrics. 2000;2(3):114-119.
  14. Olsson E,Karlstrom B,Kilander L,Byberg L,Cederholm T,Sjogren P. Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Dysfunction in a 12-Year Follow-up Study of 70 Year Old Men. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014. PMID:25062901. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25062901
  15. Ozawa M,Ninomiya T,Ohara T,Doi Y,Uchida K,Shirota T,Yonemoto K,Kitazono T,Kiyohara Y. Dietary patterns and risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(5):1076-82. PMID:23553168. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23553168
  16. Parrott MD,Shatenstein B,Ferland G,Payette H,Morais JA,Belleville S,Kergoat MJ,Gaudreau P,Greenwood CE. Relationship between diet quality and cognition depends on socioeconomic position in healthy older adults. J Nutr. 2013;143(11):1767-73. PMID:23986363. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23553168
  17. Psaltopoulou T,Kyrozis A,Stathopoulos P,Trichopoulos D,Vassilopoulos D,Trichopoulou A. Diet, physical activity and cognitive impairment among elders: the EPIC-Greece cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Public Health Nutr. 2008;11(10):1054-62. PMID:18205988. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18205988
  18. Roberts RO,Geda YE,Cerhan JR,Knopman DS,Cha RH,Christianson TJ,Pankratz VS,Ivnik RJ,Boeve BF,O'Connor HM,Petersen RC. Vegetables, unsaturated fats, moderate alcohol intake, and mild cognitive impairment. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;29(5):413-23. PMID:20502015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502015
  19. Samieri C,Grodstein F,Rosner BA,Kang JH,Cook NR,Manson JE,Buring JE,Willett WC,Okereke OI. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age. Epidemiology. 2013;24(4):490-9. PMID:23676264. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23676264
  20. Samieri C,Okereke OI,E ED,Grodstein F. Long-term adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with overall cognitive status, but not cognitive decline, in women. J Nutr. 2013;143(4):493-9. PMID:23365105. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23365105
  21. Samieri C,Sun Q,Townsend MK,Chiuve SE,Okereke OI,Willett WC,Stampfer M,Grodstein F. The association between dietary patterns at midlife and health in aging: an observational study. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(9):584-91. PMID:24189593. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24189593
  22. Scarmeas N,Stern Y,Mayeux R,Manly JJ,Schupf N,Luchsinger JA. Mediterranean diet and mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(2):216-25. PMID:19204158. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19204158
  23. Scarmeas N,Stern Y,Tang MX,Mayeux R,Luchsinger JA. Mediterranean diet and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol. 2006;59(6):912-21. PMID:16622828. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16622828
  24. Shatenstein B,Ferland G,Belleville S,Gray-Donald K,Kergoat MJ,Morais J,Gaudreau P,Payette H,Greenwood C. Diet quality and cognition among older adults from the NuAge study. Exp Gerontol. 2012;47(5):353-60. PMID:22386581. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22386581
  25. Smith PJ,Blumenthal JA,Babyak MA,Craighead L,Welsh-Bohmer KA,Browndyke JN,Strauman TA,Sherwood A. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, exercise, and caloric restriction on neurocognition in overweight adults with high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2010;55(6):1331-8. PMID:20305128. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20305128
  26. Tangney CC,Kwasny MJ,Li H,Wilson RS,Evans DA,Morris MC. Adherence to a Mediterranean-type dietary pattern and cognitive decline in a community population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(3):601-7. PMID:21177796. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21177796
  27. Titova OE,Ax E,Brooks SJ,Sjogren P,Cederholm T,Kilander L,Kullberg J,Larsson EM,Johansson L,Ahlstrom H,Lind L,Schioth HB,Benedict C. Mediterranean diet habits in older individuals: associations with cognitive functioning and brain volumes. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48(12):1443-8. PMID:24126083. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24126083
  28. Tsivgoulis G,Judd S,Letter AJ,Alexandrov AV,Howard G,Nahab F,Unverzagt FW,Moy C,Howard VJ,Kissela B,Wadley VG. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of incident cognitive impairment. Neurology. 2013;80(18):1684-92. PMID:23628929. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23628929
  29. Wengreen H,Munger RG,Cutler A,Quach A,Bowles A,Corcoran C,Tschanz JT,Norton MC,Welsh-Bohmer KA. Prospective study of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension- and Mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change: the Cache County Study on Memory, Health and Aging. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(5):1263-71. PMID:2404792. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24047922
  30. Wengreen HJ,Neilson C,Munger R,Corcoran C. Diet quality is associated with better cognitive test performance among aging men and women. J Nutr. 2009;139(10):1944-9. PMID:19675102. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19675102

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of depression?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Akbaraly TN,Brunner EJ,Ferrie JE,Marmot MG,Kivimaki M,Singh-Manoux A. Dietary pattern and depressive symptoms in middle age. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;195(5):408-13. PMID:19880930. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19880930
  2. Akbaraly TN,Sabia S,Shipley MJ,Batty GD,Kivimaki M. Adherence to healthy dietary guidelines and future depressive symptoms: evidence for sex differentials in the Whitehall II study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(2):419-27. PMID:23283506. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23283506
  3. Chan R,Chan D,Woo J. A Prospective Cohort Study to Examine the Association between Dietary Patterns and Depressive Symptoms in Older Chinese People in Hong Kong. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e105760. PMID:25148515. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25148515
  4. Chatzi L,Melaki V,Sarri K,Apostolaki I,Roumeliotaki T,Georgiou V,Vassilaki M,Koutis A,Bitsios P,Kogevinas M. Dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of postpartum depression: the mother-child 'Rhea' cohort in Crete, Greece. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(9):1663-70. PMID:21477412. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477412
  5. Chocano-Bedoya PO,O'Reilly EJ,Lucas M,Mirzaei F,Okereke OI,Fung TT,Hu FB,Ascherio A. Prospective study on long-term dietary patterns and incident depression in middle-aged and older women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(3):813-20. PMID:23885043. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23885043
  6. Jacka FN,Cherbuin N,Anstey KJ,Butterworth P. Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: examining the relationships with socioeconomic position, health behaviours and cardiovascular risk. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e87657. PMID:24489946. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24489946
  7. Le Port A,Gueguen A,Kesse-Guyot E,Melchior M,Lemogne C,Nabi H,Goldberg M,Zins M,Czernichow S. Association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: a 10-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51593. PMID:23251585. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23251585
  8. Lucas M,Chocano-Bedoya P,Shulze MB,Mirzaei F,O'Reilly EJ,Okereke OI,Hu FB,Willett WC,Ascherio A. Inflammatory dietary pattern and risk of depression among women. Brain Behav Immun. 2014;36(#number#):46-53. PMID:24095894. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24095894
  9. McMartin SE,Kuhle S,Colman I,Kirk SF,Veugelers PJ. Diet quality and mental health in subsequent years among Canadian youth. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(12):2253-8. PMID:22414240. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22414240
  10. Okubo H,Miyake Y,Sasaki S,Tanaka K,Murakami K,Hirota Y,Osaka M,Child Health Study G. Dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of postpartum depression in Japan: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Br J Nutr. 2011;105(8):1251-7. PMID:21144112. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21144112
  11. Psaltopoulou T,Kyrozis A,Stathopoulos P,Trichopoulos D,Vassilopoulos D,Trichopoulou A. Diet, physical activity and cognitive impairment among elders: the EPIC-Greece cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Public Health Nutr. 2008;11(10):1054-62. PMID:18205988. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18205988
  12. Rienks J,Dobson AJ,Mishra GD. Mediterranean dietary pattern and prevalence and incidence of depressive symptoms in mid-aged women: results from a large community-based prospective study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67(1):75-82. PMID:23212131. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23212131
  13. Ruusunen A,Lehto SM,Mursu J,Tolmunen T,Tuomainen TP,Kauhanen J,Voutilainen S. Dietary patterns are associated with the prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms and the risk of getting a hospital discharge diagnosis of depression in middle-aged or older Finnish men. J Affect Disord. 2014;159:1-6. PMID:24679382. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679382
  14. Sanchez-Villegas A,Delgado-Rodriguez M,Alonso A,Schlatter J,Lahortiga F,Serra Majem L,Martinez-Gonzalez MA. Association of the Mediterranean dietary pattern with the incidence of depression: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra/University of Navarra follow-up (SUN) cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(10):1090-8. PMID:19805699. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805699
  15. Sanchez-Villegas A,Martinez-Gonzalez MA,Estruch R,Salas-Salvado J,Corella D,Covas MI,Aros F,Romaguera D,Gomez-Gracia E,Lapetra J,Pinto X,Martinez JA,Lamuela-Raventos RM,Ros E,Gea A,Warnberg J,Serra-Majem L. Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial. BMC Med. 2013;11(#number#):208. PMID:24229349. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24229349
  16. Shatenstein B,Ferland G,Belleville S,Gray-Donald K,Kergoat MJ,Morais J,Gaudreau P,Payette H,Greenwood C. Diet quality and cognition among older adults from the NuAge study. Exp Gerontol. 2012;47(5):353-60. PMID:22386581. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22386581
  17. Skarupski KA,Tangney CC,Li H,Evans DA,Morris MC. Mediterranean diet and depressive symptoms among older adults over time. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(5):441-5. PMID:23636545. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636545
  18. Torres SJ,Nowson CA. A moderate-sodium DASH-type diet improves mood in postmenopausal women. Nutrition. 2012;28(9):896-900. PMID:22480799. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480799
  19. Vilela AA,Farias DR,Eshriqui I,Vaz JD,Franco-Sena AB,Castro MB,Olinto MT,Machado SP,Moura da Silva AA,Kac G. Prepregnancy Healthy Dietary Pattern Is Inversely Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Brazilian Women. J Nutr. 2014. PMID:25143375. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25143375

Dietary Patterns and Bone Health

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and bone health (bone mass, bone mineral density, bone mineral content, rickets, osteoporosis, and risk of fracture)?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Benetou V, Orfanos P, Pettersson-Kymmer U, et al. Mediterranean diet and incidence of hip fractures in a European cohort. Osteoporos Int 2013;24(5):1587-98. PMID:23085859.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23085859
  2. Bullo M, Amigo-Correig P, Márquez-Sandoval F, et al. Mediterranean diet and high dietary acid load associated with mixed nuts: effect on bone metabolism in elderly subjects. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009;57(10):1789-98. PMID: 19807791. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19807791
  3. Dai Z, Butler LM, van Dam RM, Ang LW, Yuan JM, Koh WP. Adherence to a vegetable-fruit-soy dietary pattern or the alternative healthy eating index is associated with lower hip fracture risk among Singapore Chinese. Journal of Nutrition 2014;144(4):511-8. PMID:2457203. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24572035
  4. Feart C, Lorrain S, Ginder Coupez V, et al. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of fractures in French older persons. Osteoporos Int 2013;24(12):3031-41. PMID: 23783645. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23783645
  5. Langsetmo L, Hanley DA, Prior JC, et al. Dietary patterns and incident low-trauma fractures in postmenopausal women and men aged ≥ 50 y: a population-based cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93(1):192-9. PMID: 21068350. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21068350
  6. Langsetmo L, Poliquin S, Hanley DA, et al. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2010;11:20. PMID:20109205. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20109205
  7. McTiernan A, Wactawski-Wende J, Wu L, et al. Low-fat, increased fruit, vegetable, and grain dietary pattern, fractures, and bone mineral density: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(6):1864-76. PMID: 19403636. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19403636
  8. Monjardino T, Lucas R, Ramos E, Barros H. Associations between a priori-defined dietary patterns and longitudinal changes in bone mineral density in adolescents. Public Health Nutr 2014;17(1):195-205. PMID: 23149164. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23149164
  9. Monma Y, Niu K, Iwasaki K, et al. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study. BMC Geriatr 2010;10:31. PMID: 20513246. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513246
  10. Noh HY, Song YJ, Lee JE, et al. Dietary patterns are associated with physical growth among school girls aged 9-11 years. Nutr Res Pract 2011;5(6):569-77. PMID: 22259683. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22259683
  11. Park SJ, Joo SE, Min H, et al. Dietary patterns and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal korean women. Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2012;3(4):199-205. 12. PMID: 24159515. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24159515
  12. Samieri C, Ginder Coupez V, Lorrain S, et al. Nutrient patterns and risk of fracture in older subjects: results from the Three-City Study. Osteoporos Int 2013;24(4):1295-30. PMID: 22976577. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22976577
  13. Wosje KS, Khoury PR, Claytor RP, et al. Dietary patterns associated with fat and bone mass in young children. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92(2):294-303. PMID: 20519562. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20519562

Sodium

What is the relationship between dietary sodium intake and blood pressure?

Existing Reports (Adults)

  1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2005. Available from: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10925
  2. Institute of Medicine. Sodium intake in populations: Assessment of evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2013. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18311
  3. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Lifestyle Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: Systematic Evidence Review from the Lifestyle Work Group, 2013. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2013. Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cvd_adult/lifestyle/index.htm

NEL Systematic Review (Update on Children)

  1. 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. What is the effect of a reduced sodium intake on blood pressure in children from birth to age 18 years? http://www.nel.gov/conclusion.cfm?conclusion_statement_id=250164
  2. Cotter J, Cotter MJ, Oliveira P, Cunha P, Polonia J. Salt intake in children 10-12 years old and its modification by active working practices in a school garden. J Hypertens 2013;31(10):1966-71. PMID: 24107730. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24107730
  3. Shi L, Krupp D, Remer T. Salt, fruit and vegetable consumption and blood pressure development: a longitudinal investigation in healthy children. Br J Nutr 2014;111(4):662-71. PMID: 24326147. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24326147

Saturated Fat

What is the relationship between saturated fat intake and risk of cardiovascular disease?

Existing Reports

  1. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Lifestyle interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk: Systematic evidence review from the Lifestyle Work Group, 2013. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2013. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/guidelines/in-develop/cardiovascular-risk-reduction/lifestyle/index.htm
  2. Chowdhury R, Warnakula S, Kunutsor S, Crowe F, Ward HA, Johnson L, et al. Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(6):398-406. PMID: 24723079. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24723079
  3. Farvid MS, Ding M, Pan A, Sun Q, Chiuve SE, Steffen LM, Willett WC, Hu FB. Dietary linoleic acid and risk of coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circulation. 2014 Aug 26. pii: CIRCULATIONAHA.114.010236. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25161045. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25161045
  4. Hooper L, Summerbell CD, Thompson R, Sills D, Roberts FG, Moore HJ, et al. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;5:CD002137. PMID: 22592684. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22592684
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