When reviewing questions and supporting evidence at the public meeting, the Committee will refer to studies in the scientific literature. These questions and citations are part of the Committee’s deliberative process and are considered draft material under consideration. The information provided here relates to the topics discussed at this meeting and do not represent all of the questions or literature the Committee may consider as it completes its work. Final questions, details of the literature searches, and final literature that contributed to the Committee’s conclusions will be available in the Committee’s final report and/or on www.DietaryGuidelines.gov and www.NEL.gov.

SC 5: Food Sustainability and Food Safety


What is the relationship between usual coffee/caffeine consumption and health?

Existing Systematic Reviews

Total Mortality

  1. Coffee consumption and total mortality: a meta-analysis of twenty prospective cohort studies. Je Y, Giovannucci E. Br J Nutr. 2013 Nov 27:1-12. PMID: 24279995. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24279995
  2. Malerba S, Turati F, Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Verga F, La Vecchia C, Tavani A. A meta-analysis of prospective studies of coffee consumption and mortality for all causes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013 Jul;28(7):527-39. PMID: 23934579. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23934579

Cardiovascular Disease

  1. Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Satija A, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Long-Term Coffee Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and a Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Ding Circulation. 2013. PMID: 24201300. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24201300
  2. Caldeira D, Martins C, Alves LB, Pereira H, Ferreira JJ, Costa J. Caffeine does not increase the risk of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Heart. 2013 Oct;99(19):1383-9. PMID: 24009307. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24009307
  3. Cai L, Ma D, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Wang P. The effect of coffee consumption on serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug;66(8):872-7. PMID: 22713771. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22713771
  4. Steffen M, Kuhle C, Hensrud D, Erwin PJ, Murad MH. J Hypertens. The effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure and the development of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2012 Dec;30(12):2245-54. PMID: 23032138. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23032138
  5. Zhang Z, Hu G, Caballero B, Appel L, Chen L. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun;93(6):1212-9. PMID: 21450934. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21450934
  6. Mesas AE, Leon-Muñoz LM, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Lopez-Garcia E. The effect of coffee on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;94(4):1113-26. PMID: 21880846. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21880846
  7. Kim B, Nam Y, Kim J, Choi H, Won C. Coffee Consumption and Stroke Risk: A Meta-analysis of Epidemiologic Studies. Korean J Fam Med. 2012 Nov;33(6):356-65. PMID: 23267421. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23267421
  8. Larsson SC, Orsini N. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Nov 1;174(9):993-1001. PMID: 21920945. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21920945
  9. Mostofsky E, Rice MS, Levitan EB, Mittleman MA. Habitual coffee consumption and risk of heart failure: a dose-response meta-analysis.Circ Heart Fail. 2012 Jul 1;5(4):401-5. PMID: 22740040. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22740040
  10. Wu JN, Ho SC, Zhou C, Ling WH, Chen WQ, Wang CL, Chen YM. Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: a meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies. Int J Cardiol. 2009 Nov 12;137(3):216-25. PMID: 18707777. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18707777
  11. Sofi F, Conti AA, Gori AM, Eliana Luisi ML, Casini A, Abbate R, Gensini GF. Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. MA on CHD Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007 Mar;17(3):209-23. PMID: 17156982. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17156982
  12. Noordzij M, Uiterwaal CS, Arends LR, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertens. 2005 May;23(5):921-8. PMID: 15834273. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15834273

Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Chen M, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and a Dose-Response Meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2014 Feb;37(2):569-86. PMID: 24459154. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24459154
  2. Jiang X, Zhang D, Jiang W. Coffee and caffeine intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Nutr. 2013 PMID: 24150256. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24150256
  3. Whitehead N, White H. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of the effects of caffeine or caffeinated drinks on blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in people with diabetes mellitus.J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013 Apr;26(2):111-25. PMID: 23331476. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23331476
  4. Muley A, Muley P, Shah M. Coffee to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes?: a systematic review. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2012 May;8(3):162-8. PMID: 22497654. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22497654
  5. Huxley R, Lee CM, Barzi F, Timmermeister L, Czernichow S, Perkovic V, Grobbee DE, Batty D, Woodward M. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption in relation to incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Dec 14;169(22):2053-63. PMID: 20008687. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20008687
  6. Van Dam RM, Hu FB. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. JAMA. 2005 Jul 6;294(1):97-104. PMID: 15998896. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15998896

Various Cancers (Lung, Liver, Breast, Prostate, Ovarian, Endometrial, Bladder, Pancreatic, Upper Digestive and Respiratory Tract, Esophageal, Gastric, Colorectal)

  1. Yu X, Bao Z, Zou J, Dong J. Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMC Cancer. 2011 Mar 15;11:96. PMID: 21406107. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406107
  2. Tang N, Wu Y, Ma J, Wang B, Yu R. Coffee consumption and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Lung Cancer. 2010 Jan;67(1):17-22. PMID: 19362749. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19362749
  3. Sang LX, Chang B, Li XH, Jiang M. Consumption of coffee associated with reduced risk of liver cancer: a meta-analysis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013 Feb 25;13:34. PMID: 23433483. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23433483
  4. Bravi F, Bosetti C, Tavani A, Gallus S, La Vecchia C. Coffee reduces risk for hepatocellular carcinoma: an updated meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Nov;11(11):1413-1421.e1. PMID: 23660416. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23660416
  5. Jiang W, Wu Y, Jiang X. Coffee and caffeine intake and breast cancer risk: an updated dose-response meta-analysis of 37 published studies. Gynecol Oncol. 2013 Jun;129(3):620-9. PMID: 23535278. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23535278
  6. Li XJ, Ren ZJ, Qin JW, Zhao JH, Tang JH, Ji MH, Wu JZ. Coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer: an up-to-date meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e52681. 23308117. PMID: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23308117
  7. Tang N, Zhou B, Wang B, Yu R. Coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer: a metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Mar;200(3):290.e1-9. PMID: 19114275. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19114275
  8. Cao S, Liu L, Yin X, Wang Y, Liu J, Lu Z. Coffee consumption and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Jan 13. PMID: 24343360. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24343360
  9. Zhong S, Chen W, Yu X, Chen Z, Hu Q, Zhao J. Coffee consumption and risk of prostate cancer: an up-to-date meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec 4. PMID: 24343360. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24343360
  10. Discacciati A, Orsini N, Wolk A. Coffee consumption and risk of nonaggressive, aggressive and fatal prostate cancer--a dose-response meta-analysis. Ann Oncol. 2013 Nov 24. PMID: 24276028. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24276028
  11. Park CH, Myung SK, Kim TY, Seo HG, Jeon YJ, Kim Y. Coffee consumption and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Korean Meta-Analysis (KORMA) Study Group. BJU Int. 2010 Sep;106(6):762-9. PMID: 20590551. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590551
  12. Braem MG, Onland-Moret NC, Schouten LJ, TjĂžnneland A, Hansen L, Dahm CC et al. Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of ovarian cancer: a prospective cohort study and updated meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May;95(5):1172-81. PMID: 22440851. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22440851
  13. Je Y, Giovannucci E. Coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: findings from a large up-to-date meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2012 Oct 1;131(7):1700-10. PMID: 22190017. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22190017
  14. Bravi F, Scotti L, Bosetti C, Gallus S, Negri E, La Vecchia C, Tavani A. Coffee drinking and endometrial cancer risk: a metaanalysis of observational studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Feb;200(2):130-5. PMID: 19110217. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19110217
  15. Zhou Y, Tian C, Jia C. A dose-response meta-analysis of coffee consumption and bladder cancer. Prev Med. 2012 Jul;55(1):14-22. PMID: 22564775. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22564775
  16. Turati F, Galeone C, Edefonti V, Ferraroni M, Lagiou P, La Vecchia C, Tavani A. A meta-analysis of coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer. Ann Oncol. 2012 Feb;23(2):311-8. PMID: 21746805. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21746805
  17. Dong J, Zou J, Yu XF. Coffee drinking and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Mar 7;17(9):1204-10. PMID: 21448427. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21448427
  18. Turati F, Galeone C, La Vecchia C, Garavello W, Tavani A. Coffee and cancers of the upper digestive and respiratory tracts: meta-analyses of observational studies. Ann Oncol. 2011 Mar;22(3):536-44. PMID: 20943597. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943597
  19. Zheng JS, Yang J, Fu YQ, Huang T, Huang YJ, Li D. Effects of green tea, black tea, and coffee consumption on the risk of esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(1):1-16. PMID: 23368908. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23368908
  20. Botelho F, Lunet N, Barros H. Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Cad Saude Publica. 2006 May;22(5):889-900. PMID: 16680342. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16680342
  21. Li G, Ma D, Zhang Y, Zheng W, Wang P. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Public Health Nutr. 2012 Feb;16(2):346-57. PMID: 22694939. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22694939
  22. Galeone C, Turati F, La Vecchia C, Tavani A. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Nov;21(11):1949-59. PMID: 20680435. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20680435
  23. Je Y, Liu W, Giovannucci E. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Cancer. 2009 Apr 1;124(7):1662-8. PMID: 19115212. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19115212

Cognitive Outcomes

  1. Arab L, Khan F, Lam H. Epidemiologic evidence of a relationship between tea, coffee, or caffeine consumption and cognitive decline. Adv Nutr. 2013 Jan 1;4(1):115-22. PMID: 23319129. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23319129
  2. Santos C, Costa J, Santos J, Vaz-Carneiro A, Lunet N. Caffeine intake and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20 Suppl 1:S187-204. PMID: 20182026. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20182026

Parkinson’s Disease

  1. Qi H, Li S. Dose-response meta-analysis on coffee, tea and caffeine consumption with risk of Parkinson's disease. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013 Jul 23. PMID: 23879665. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23879665
  2. Liu R, Guo X, Park Y, Huang X, Sinha R, Freedman ND, Hollenbeck AR, Blair A, Chen H. Caffeine intake, smoking, and risk of Parkinson disease in men and women. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Jun 1;175(11):1200-7. PMID: 22505763. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22505763
  3. Costa J, Lunet N, Santos C, Santos J, Vaz-Carneiro A. Caffeine exposure and the risk of Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20 Suppl 1:S221-38. PMID: 20182023. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20182023
  4. Ishihara L, Brayne C. A systematic review of nutritional risk factors of Parkinson's disease. Nutr Res Rev. 2005 Dec;18(2):259-82. PMID: 19079910. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19079910

Bone Outcomes

  1. Liu H, Yao K, Zhang W, Zhou J, Wu T, He C. Coffee consumption and risk of fractures: a meta-analysis. Arch Med Sci. 2012 Nov 9;8(5):776-83. PMID: 23185185. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23185185

Liver Disease

  1. Saab S, Mallam D, Cox Ii GA, Tong MJ. Impact of coffee on liver diseases: a systematic review. Liver Int. 2013 Aug 12. PMID: 24102757. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24102757

Gastroesophageal Outcomes

  1. Kim J, Oh SW, Myung SK, Kwon H, Lee C, Yun JM, Lee HK. Association between coffee intake and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis. The Korean Meta-analysis (KORMA) Study Group. Dis Esophagus. 2013 Jun 24. PMID: 23795898. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23795898

What is the relationship between high-dose coffee/caffeine consumption and health?

Existing Systematic Reviews

  1. Burrows T, Pursey K, Neve M, Stanwell P. What are the health implications associated with the consumption of energy drinks? A systematic review. Nutr Rev. 2013 Mar;71(3):135-48. PMID: 23452281. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23452281
  2. Goldfarb M, Tellier C, Thanassoulis G. Review of published cases of adverse cardiovascular events after ingestion of energy drinks. Am J Cardiol. 2014 Jan 1;113(1):168-72. PMID: 24176062. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176062


What is the relationship between aspartame consumption and health?

Existing Report

  1. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of aspartame (E 951) as a food additive, 2013. Parma, Italy: EFAS Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), EFSA Journal 2013;11(12):3496. PMID: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3496.htm

Dietary Patterns and Sustainability

What is the relationship between population-level dietary patterns and long-term food sustainability and related food security?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Aston LM,Smith JN,Powles JW. Impact of a reduced red and processed meat dietary pattern on disease risks and greenhouse gas emissions in the UK: a modelling study. BMJ Open. 2012. PMID:22964113. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22964113
  2. Baroni L,Cenci L,Tettamanti M,Berati M. Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007. 61:279-86. PMID:17035955. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17035955
  3. Barosh L,Friel S,Engelhardt K,Chan L. The cost of a healthy and sustainable diet - who can afford it?. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2014. 38:7-12. PMID:24494938. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24494938
  4. De Carvalho AM,Cesar CL,Fisberg RM,Marchioni DM. Excessive meat consumption in Brazil: diet quality and environmental impacts. Public Health Nutr. 2013. 16:1893-9. PMID:22894818. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894818
  5. Hendrie GA,Ridoutt BG,Wiedmann TO,Noakes M. Greenhouse gas emissions and the Australian diet--comparing dietary recommendations with average intakes. Nutrients. 2014. 6:289-303. PMID:24406846. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24406846
  6. Macdiarmid JI,Kyle J,Horgan GW,Loe J,Fyfe C,Johnstone A,McNeill G. Sustainable diets for the future: Can we contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by eating a healthy diet?. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012. 96:632-9. PMID:22854399. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22854399
  7. Meier T,Christen O. Environmental impacts of dietary recommendations and dietary styles: Germany as an example. Environ Sci Technol. 2013. 47:877-88. PMID:23189920. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23189920
  8. Pimentel D,Pimentel M. Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003. 78:660S-663S. PMID:12936963. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12936963
  9. Pradhan P,Reusser DE,Kropp JP. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets. PLoS One. 2013. 8:e62228. PMID:23700408. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23700408
  10. Saez-Almendros S,Obrador B,Bach-Faig A,Serra-Majem L. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet. Environ Health. 2013. 12:118. PMID:24378069. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
  11. Scarborough P,Allender S,Clarke D,Wickramasinghe K,Rayner M. Modelling the health impact of environmentally sustainable dietary scenarios in the UK. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012. 66:710-5. PMID:22491494. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22491494
  12. Wilson N,Nghiem N,Ni Mhurchu C,Eyles H,Baker MG,Blakely T. Foods and dietary patterns that are healthy, low-cost, and environmentally sustainable: a case study of optimization modeling for New Zealand. PLoS One. 2013. 8:e59648. PMID:23544082. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23544082
  13. Vieux F,Soler LG,Touazi D,Darmon N. High nutritional quality is not associated with low greenhouse gas emissions in self-selected diets of French adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013. 97:569-83. PMID:23364012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364012
  14. Peters CJ,Wilkins JL,Fick GW. Testing a complete-diet model for estimating the land resource requirements of food consumption and agricultural carrying capacity: The New York State example. Renewable agriculture and food systems. 2007. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1091328&fileId=S1742170507001767
  15. Van Dooren, C.; Marinussen, Mari; Blonk, Hans; Aiking, Harry; Vellinga, Pier. Exploring dietary guidelines based on ecological and nutritional values: A comparison of six dietary patterns. Food Policy. Feb2014, Vol. 44, p36-46. 11p. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306919213001620