When reviewing questions and supporting evidence at the public meeting, the Committee will refer to studies in the scientific literature. These questions and citations are part of the Committee’s deliberative process and are considered draft material under consideration. The information provided here relates to the topics discussed at this meeting and do not represent all of the questions or literature the Committee may consider as it completes its work. Final questions, details of the literature searches, and final literature that contributed to the Committee’s conclusions will be available in the Committee’s final report and/or on www.DietaryGuidelines.gov and www.NEL.gov.

SC 2: Dietary Patterns, Foods and Nutrients, and Health Outcomes

Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Body Weight

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular disease?

Existing Reports, Systematic Reviews, and Meta-Analyses

  1. Huang T, Yang B, Zheng J, Li G, Wahlqvist ML, Li D. Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60(4):233-40. PMID: 22677895. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22677895
  2. Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Bes-Rastrollo M. Dietary patterns, Mediterranean diet, and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2014 Feb;25(1):20-6. PMID: 24370845. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24370845
  3. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Lifestyle Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: Systematic Evidence Review from the Lifestyle Work Group, 2013. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2013. Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cvd_adult/lifestyle/index.htm
  4. Nutrition Evidence Library. A series of systematic reviews on the relationship between dietary patterns and health outcomes. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, March 2014. Available from: http://www.nel.gov/vault/2440/web/files/DietaryPatterns/DPRptFullFinal.pdf [PDF - 6.1 MB]
  5. Rees K, Hartley L, Flowers N, Clarke A, Hooper L, Thorogood M, Stranges S. 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug 12;8:CD009825. PMID: 23939686. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23939686
  6. Salehi-Abargouei A, Maghsoudi Z, Shirani F, Azadbakht L. Effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet on fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular diseases--incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis on observational prospective studies. Nutrition. 2013 Apr;29(4):611-8. PMID: 23466047. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466047
  7. Sofi F, Macchi C, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A. Mediterranean diet and health status: an updated meta-analysis and a proposal for a literature-based adherence score. Public Health Nutr. 2013 Nov 29:1-14. PMID: 24476641. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476641
  8. Yokoyama Y, Nishimura K, Barnard ND, Takegami M, Watanabe M, Sekikawa A, Okamura T, Miyamoto Y. Vegetarian Diets and Blood Pressure: A Meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Apr;174(4):577-87. PMID: 24566947. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24566947

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and measures of body weight or obesity?

Existing Reports, Systematic Reviews, and Meta-Analyses

  1. Ambrosini GL. Childhood dietary patterns and later obesity: a review of the evidence. Proc Nutr Soc. 2014 Feb;73(1):137-46. PMID: 24280165. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24280165
  2. Esposito K, Kastorini CM, Panagiotakos DB, Giugliano D. Mediterranean diet and weight loss: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011 Feb;9(1):1-12. PMID: 20973675. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20973675
  3. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Managing overweight and obesity in adults: Systematic evidence review from the Obesity Expert Panel, 2013. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2013. Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ser/index.htm
  4. Nutrition Evidence Library. A series of systematic reviews on the relationship between dietary patterns and health outcomes. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, March 2014. Available from: http://www.nel.gov/vault/2440/web/files/DietaryPatterns/DPRptFullFinal.pdf [PDF - 6.1 MB]

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes?

Existing Reports, Systematic Reviews, and Meta-Analyses

  1. Alhazmi A, Stojanovski E, McEvoy M, Garg ML. The association between dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014 Jun;27(3):251-60. PMID: 24102939. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24102939
  2. Nutrition Evidence Library. A series of systematic reviews on the relationship between dietary patterns and health outcomes. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, March 2014. Available from: http://www.nel.gov/vault/2440/web/files/DietaryPatterns/DPRptFullFinal.pdf [PDF - 6.1 MB]

Dietary Patterns and Cancer

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Agnoli C,Grioni S,Sieri S,Palli D,Masala G,Sacerdote C,Vineis P,Tumino R,Giurdanella MC,Pala V,Berrino F,Mattiello A,Panico S,Krogh V. Italian Mediterranean Index and risk of colorectal cancer in the Italian section of the EPIC cohort. Int J Cancer. 2013;132(6):1404-11. PMID:22821300. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22821300
  2. Bamia C,Lagiou P,Buckland G,Grioni S,Agnoli C,Taylor AJ,Dahm CC,Overvad K,Olsen A,Tjonneland A,Cottet V,Boutron-Ruault MC,Morois S,Grote V,Teucher B,Boeing H,Buijsse B,Trichopoulos D,Adarakis G,Tumino R,Naccarati A,Panico S,Palli D,Bueno-de-Mesquita HB,van Duijnhoven FJ,Peeters PH,Engeset D,Skeie G,Lund E,Sanchez MJ,Barricarte A,Huerta JM,Quiros JR,Dorronsoro M,Ljuslinder I,Palmqvist R,Drake I,Key TJ,Khaw KT,Wareham N,Romieu I,Fedirko V,Jenab M,Romaguera D,Norat T,Trichopoulou A. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer risk: results from a European cohort. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28(4):317-28. PMID:23579425. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579425
  3. Beresford SA,Johnson KC,Ritenbaugh C,Lasser NL,Snetselaar LG,Black HR,Anderson GL,Assaf AR,Bassford T,Bowen D,Brunner RL,Brzyski RG,Caan B,Chlebowski RT,Gass M,Harrigan RC,Hays J,Heber D,Heiss G,Hendrix SL,Howard BV,Hsia J,Hubbell FA,Jackson RD,Kotchen JM,Kuller LH,LaCroix AZ,Lane DS,Langer RD,Lewis CE,Manson JE,Margolis KL,Mossavar-Rahmani Y,Ockene JK,Parker LM,Perri MG,Phillips L,Prentice RL,Robbins J,Rossouw JE,Sarto GE,Stefanick ML,Van Horn L,Vitolins MZ,Wactawski-Wende J,Wallace RB,Whitlock E. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006;295(6):643-54. PMID:16467233. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16467233
  4. Butler LM,Wang R,Koh WP,Yu MC. Prospective study of dietary patterns and colorectal cancer among Singapore Chinese. Br J Cancer. 2008;99(9):1511-6. PMID:18813309. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18813309
  5. Dixon LB,Balder HF,Virtanen MJ,Rashidkhani B,Mannisto S,Krogh V,van Den Brandt PA,Hartman AM,Pietinen P,Tan F,Virtamo J,Wolk A,Goldbohm RA. Dietary patterns associated with colon and rectal cancer: results from the Dietary Patterns and Cancer (DIETSCAN) Project. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(4):1003-11. PMID:15447912. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15447912
  6. Doubeni CA,Major JM,Laiyemo AO,Schootman M,Zauber AG,Hollenbeck AR,Sinha R,Allison J. Contribution of behavioral risk factors and obesity to socioeconomic differences in colorectal cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104(18):1353-62. PMID:22952311. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22952311
  7. Engeset D,Dyachenko A,Ciampi A,Lund E. Dietary patterns and risk of cancer of various sites in the Norwegian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2009;18(1):69-75. PMID:19077568. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19077568
  8. Flood A,Rastogi T,Wirfalt E,Mitrou PN,Reedy J,Subar AF,Kipnis V,Mouw T,Hollenbeck AR,Leitzmann M,Schatzkin A. Dietary patterns as identified by factor analysis and colorectal cancer among middle-aged Americans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(1):176-84. PMID:18614739. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18614739
  9. Fung T,Hu FB,Fuchs C,Giovannucci E,Hunter DJ,Stampfer MJ,Colditz GA,Willett WC. Major dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer in women. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(3):309-14. PMID:12578511. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12578511
  10. Fung TT,Hu FB,Wu K,Chiuve SE,Fuchs CS,Giovannucci E. The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets and colorectal cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(6):1429-35. PMID:21097651. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21097651
  11. Fung TT,Hu FB,Schulze M,Pollak M,Wu T,Fuchs CS,Giovannucci E. A dietary pattern that is associated with C-peptide and risk of colorectal cancer in women. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23(6):959-65. PMID:22535146. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22535146
  12. Jarvandi S,Davidson NO,Schootman M. Increased risk of colorectal cancer in type 2 diabetes is independent of diet quality. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e74616. PMID:24069323. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24069323
  13. Kesse E,Clavel-Chapelon F,Boutron-Ruault MC. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal tumors: a cohort of French women of the National Education System (E3N). Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164(11):1085-93. PMID:16990408. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16990408
  14. Key TJ,Appleby PN,Spencer EA,Travis RC,Roddam AW,Allen NE. Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1620S-1626S. PMID:19279082. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279082
  15. Kim MK,Sasaki S,Otani T,Tsugane S,Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study G. Dietary patterns and subsequent colorectal cancer risk by subsite: a prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2005;115(5):790-8. PMID:15704172. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15704172
  16. Kyro C,Skeie G,Loft S,Overvad K,Christensen J,Tjonneland A,Olsen A. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Br J Nutr. 2013;109(5):920-7. PMID:22874538. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22874538
  17. Mai V,Kant AK,Flood A, Jr. Lacey JV,Schairer C,Schatzkin A. Diet quality and subsequent cancer incidence and mortality in a prospective cohort of women. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34(1):54-60. PMID:15649959. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649959
  18. Miller PE,Cross AJ,Subar AF,Krebs-Smith SM,Park Y,Powell-Wiley T,Hollenbeck A,Reedy J. Comparison of 4 established DASH diet indexes: examining associations of index scores and colorectal cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(3):794-803. PMID:23864539. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23864539
  19. Reedy J,Mitrou PN,Krebs-Smith SM,Wirfalt E,Flood A,Kipnis V,Leitzmann M,Mouw T,Hollenbeck A,Schatzkin A,Subar AF. Index-based dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168(1):38-48. PMID:18525082. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18525082
  20. Terry P,Hu FB,Hansen H,Wolk A. Prospective study of major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154(12):1143-9. PMID:11744520. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11744520
  21. Wirfalt E,Midthune D,Reedy J,Mitrou P,Flood A,Subar AF,Leitzmann M,Mouw T,Hollenbeck AR,Schatzkin A,Kipnis V. Associations between food patterns defined by cluster analysis and colorectal cancer incidence in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(6):707-17. PMID:18685556. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18685556
  22. Wu K,Hu FB,Fuchs C,Rimm EB,Willett WC,Giovannucci E. Dietary patterns and risk of colon cancer and adenoma in a cohort of men (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(9):853-62. PMID:15577287. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15577287

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Adebamowo CA, Hu FB, Cho E, Spiegelman D, Holmes MD, Willett WC. Dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer. Ann Epidemiol. 2005;15(10):789-95. PMID: 16257363. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16257363
  2. Agurs-Collins T,Rosenberg L,Makambi K,Palmer JR,Adams-Campbell L. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in women participating in the Black Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(3):621-8. PMID:19587089. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19587089
  3. Baglietto L,Krishnan K,Severi G,Hodge A,Brinkman M,English DR,McLean C,Hopper JL,Giles GG. Dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2011;104(3):524-31. PMID:21157446. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21157446
  4. Buckland G,Travier N,Cottet V,Gonzalez CA,Lujan-Barroso L,Agudo A,Trichopoulou A,Lagiou P,Trichopoulos D,Peeters PH,May A,Bueno-de-Mesquita HB,Bvan Duijnhoven FJ,Key TJ,Allen N,Khaw KT,Wareham N,Romieu I,McCormack V,Boutron-Ruault M,Clavel-Chapelon F,Panico S,Agnoli C,Palli D,Tumino R,Vineis P,Amiano P,Barricarte A,Rodriguez L,Sanchez MJ,Chirlaque MD,Kaaks R,Teucher B,Boeing H,Bergmann MM,Overvad K,Dahm CC,Tjonneland A,Olsen A,Manjer J,Wirfalt E,Hallmans G,Johansson I,Lund E,Hjartaker A,Skeie G,Vergnaud AC,Norat T,Romaguera D,Riboli E. Adherence to the mediterranean diet and risk of breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2013;132(12):2918-27. PMID:23180513. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23180513
  5. Butler LM,Wu AH,Wang R,Koh WP,Yuan JM,Yu MC. A vegetable-fruit-soy dietary pattern protects against breast cancer among postmenopausal Singapore Chinese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(4):1013-9. PMID:20181808. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20181808
  6. Cade JE,Taylor EF,Burley VJ,Greenwood DC. Common dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer: analysis from the United Kingdom Women's Cohort Study. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(3):300-6. PMID:20358467. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20358467
  7. Cade JE,Taylor EF,Burley VJ,Greenwood DC. Does the Mediterranean dietary pattern or the Healthy Diet Index influence the risk of breast cancer in a large British cohort of women?. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(8):920-8. PMID:21587285. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21587285
  8. Cottet V,Touvier M,Fournier A,Touillaud MS,Lafay L,Clavel-Chapelon F,Boutron-Ruault MC. Postmenopausal breast cancer risk and dietary patterns in the E3N-EPIC prospective cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170(10):1257-67. PMID:19828509. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19828509
  9. Couto E,Sandin S,Lof M,Ursin G,Adami HO,Weiderpass E. Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55374. PMID:23390532. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23390532
  10. Engeset D,Dyachenko A,Ciampi A,Lund E. Dietary patterns and risk of cancer of various sites in the Norwegian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2009;18(1):69-75. PMID:19077568. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19077568
  11. Fung TT,Hu FB,Holmes MD,Rosner BA,Hunter DJ,Colditz GA,Willett WC. Dietary patterns and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2005;116(1):116-21. PMID:15756679. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15756679
  12. Fung TT,Hu FB,McCullough ML,Newby PK,Willett WC,Holmes MD. Diet quality is associated with the risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2006;136(2):466-72. PMID:16424129. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16424129
  13. Fung TT,Hu FB,Hankinson SE,Willett WC,Holmes MD. Low-carbohydrate diets, dietary approaches to stop hypertension-style diets, and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;174(6):652-60. PMID:21832271. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21832271
  14. Fung TT,Schulze MB,Hu FB,Hankinson SE,Holmes MD. A dietary pattern derived to correlate with estrogens and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;132(3):1157-62. PMID:22218885. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22218885
  15. Key TJ,Appleby PN,Spencer EA,Travis RC,Roddam AW,Allen NE. Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1620S-1626S. PMID:19279082. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279082
  16. Link LB,Canchola AJ,Bernstein L,Clarke CA,Stram DO,Ursin G,Horn-Ross PL. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(6):1524-32. PMID:24108781. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24108781
  17. Mai V,Kant AK,Flood A, Jr. Lacey JV,Schairer C,Schatzkin A. Diet quality and subsequent cancer incidence and mortality in a prospective cohort of women. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34(1):54-60. PMID:15649959. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649959
  18. Mannisto S,Dixon LB,Balder HF,Virtanen MJ,Krogh V,Khani BR,Berrino F,van den Brandt PA,Hartman AM,Pietinen P,Tan F,Wolk A,Goldbohm RA. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: results from three cohort studies in the DIETSCAN project. Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16(6):725-33. PMID:16049811. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16049811
  19. Prentice RL,Caan B,Chlebowski RT,Patterson R,Kuller LH,Ockene JK,Margolis KL,Limacher MC,Manson JE,Parker LM,Paskett E,Phillips L,Robbins J,Rossouw JE,Sarto GE,Shikany JM,Stefanick ML,Thomson CA,Van Horn L,Vitolins MZ,Wactawski-Wende J,Wallace RB,Wassertheil-Smoller S,Whitlock E,Yano K,Adams-Campbell L,Anderson GL,Assaf AR,Beresford SA,Black HR,Brunner RL,Brzyski RG,Ford L,Gass M,Hays J,Heber D,Heiss G,Hendrix SL,Hsia J,Hubbell FA,Jackson RD,Johnson KC,Kotchen JM,LaCroix AZ,Lane DS,Langer RD,Lasser NL,Henderson MM. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006;295(6):629-42. PMID:16467232. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16467232
  20. Sant M,Allemani C,Sieri S,Krogh V,Menard S,Tagliabue E,Nardini E,Micheli A,Crosignani P,Muti P,Berrino F. Salad vegetables dietary pattern protects against HER-2-positive breast cancer: a prospective Italian study. Int J Cancer. 2007;121(4):911-4. PMID:17455245. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17455245
  21. Schulz M,Hoffmann K,Weikert C,Nothlings U,Schulze MB,Boeing H. Identification of a dietary pattern characterized by high-fat food choices associated with increased risk of breast cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Br J Nutr. 2008;100(5):942-6. PMID:18377685. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18377685
  22. Sieri S,Krogh V,Pala V,Muti P,Micheli A,Evangelista A,Tagliabue G,Berrino F. Dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer in the ORDET cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(4):567-72. PMID:15066921. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15066921
  23. Terry P,Suzuki R,Hu FB,Wolk A. A prospective study of major dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(12):1281-5. PMID:11751446. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11751446
  24. Trichopoulou A,Bamia C,Lagiou P,Trichopoulos D. Conformity to traditional Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk in the Greek EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(3):620-5. PMID:20631204. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20631204
  25. Velie EM,Schairer C,Flood A,He JP,Khattree R,Schatzkin A. Empirically derived dietary patterns and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a large prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(6):1308-19. PMID:16332665. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16332665

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Ax E,Garmo H,Grundmark B,Bill-Axelson A,Holmberg L,Becker W,Zethelius B,Cederholm T,Sjogren P. Dietary Patterns and Prostate Cancer Risk: Report from the Population Based ULSAM Cohort Study of Swedish Men. Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(1):77-87. PMID:24325263. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24325263
  2. Bosire C,Stampfer MJ,Subar AF,Park Y,Kirkpatrick SI,Chiuve SE,Hollenbeck AR,Reedy J. Index-based dietary patterns and the risk of prostate cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):504-13. PMID:23408548. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23408548
  3. Kenfield SA,Dupre N,Richman EL,Stampfer MJ,Chan JM,Giovannucci EL. Mediterranean Diet and Prostate Cancer Risk and Mortality in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Eur Urol. 2013; 65(5):887-894. PMID:23962747. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23962747
  4. Key TJ,Appleby PN,Spencer EA,Travis RC,Roddam AW,Allen NE. Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1620S-1626S. PMID:19279082. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279082
  5. Muller DC,Severi G,Baglietto L,Krishnan K,English DR,Hopper JL,Giles GG. Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(11):3126-9. PMID:19861522. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19861522
  6. Tseng M,Breslow RA,DeVellis RF,Ziegler RG. Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-up Study cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(1):71-7. PMID:14744736. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14744736
  7. Wu K,Hu FB,Willett WC,Giovannucci E. Dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in U.S. men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(1):167-71. PMID:16434606. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16434606

What is the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of lung cancer?

NEL Systematic Review

  1. Balder HF,Goldbohm RA,van den Brandt PA. Dietary patterns associated with male lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(2):483-90. PMID:15734976. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15734976
  2. Gnagnarella P,Maisonneuve P,Bellomi M,Rampinelli C,Bertolotti R,Spaggiari L,Palli D,Veronesi G. Red meat, Mediterranean diet and lung cancer risk among heavy smokers in the COSMOS screening study. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(10):2606-11. PMID:23956193. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23956193
  3. Key TJ,Appleby PN,Spencer EA,Travis RC,Roddam AW,Allen NE. Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1620S-1626S. PMID:19279082. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279082
  4. Mai V,Kant AK,Flood A, Jr. Lacey JV,Schairer C,Schatzkin A. Diet quality and subsequent cancer incidence and mortality in a prospective cohort of women. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34(1):54-60. PMID:15649959. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649959