When reviewing questions and supporting evidence at the public meeting, the Committee will refer to studies in the scientific literature. These questions and citations are part of the Committee’s deliberative process and are considered draft material under consideration. The information provided here relates to the topics discussed at this meeting and do not represent all of the questions or literature the Committee may consider as it completes its work. Final questions, details of the literature searches, and final literature that contributed to the Committee’s conclusions will be available in the Committee’s final report and/or on www.DietaryGuidelines.gov and www.NEL.gov.

SC 1: Food and Nutrient Intakes, and Health: Current Status and Trends

Through Subcommittee 1, Food and Nutrient Intakes, and Health: Current Status and Trends, the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee is using the following data sources in drafting its report. Some were existing data; others were requested from USDA or HHS agencies for the Committee’s deliberations.

Nutrients of Public Health Concern

What are current consumption patterns of nutrients from foods and beverages in the U.S. population? (sources 1, 2, 4, 5, 6)

Of the nutrients that are underconsumed or overconsumed, which present a substantial public health concern, including over the UL? (sources 7-15)

Is there evidence of overconsumption of any micronutrients from consumption of fortified foods and supplements? (source 3)

What is the level of caffeine intake derived from foods and beverages on the basis of DRI age and sex categories in the U.S. population? (sources 1, 2)

How well do updated USDA Food Patterns meet IOM Dietary Reference Intakes and 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommendations? How do the recommended amounts of food groups compare to current distributions of usual intakes for the U.S. population? (source 16)

  1. Usual intake distributions, 2007-10 by age/gender groups
    Food Surveys Research Group. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center. Agricultural Research Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Usual Intakes from Food and Beverages 2007-2010 Compared To Dietary Reference Intakes. Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-BINDER/meeting2/docs/refMaterials/Usual_Intake_072013.pdf [PDF - 963 KB].
  2. Usual intake distributions, 2007-10 for pregnant and non-pregnant women in the U.S. ages 19-50 years. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC.) Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/DGAC-usual0710_set1_preg-508c.pdf [PDF - 563 KB]
  3. Usual intake distributions for supplement and non-supplement users for folate, folic acid, vitamin D, calcium, and iron, 2007-10 by age/gender groups. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC.) Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/DGAC-usual_supp_0710-508c.pdf [PDF - 860 KB] and http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/DGAC-usual_nonsupp_0710-508c.pdf [PDF - 705 KB]
  4. Usual intake distributions as a percent of energy for fatty acids and macronutrients, 2007-10 by age/gender groups. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC). Available from:http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/DGAC-usual0710_set1b-508c.pdf [PDF - 341 KB]
  5. Mean intake of nutrients, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009-10 by race/ethnicity and by percent of the poverty threshold
    U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. Food Surveys Research Group. What We Eat in America. [updated 10/29/2013]. Available from: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349.
  6. Usual intake of selected nutrients, 2001-02, 2003-06, or 2005-06 by age/gender groups and for women who are pregnant
    U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. Food Surveys Research Group. What We Eat in America. [updated 10/29/2013]. Available from: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=22659.
  7. National Center for Environmental Health. Division of Laboratory Sciences. Second national report on biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition in the U.S. population. Atlanta, Ga.: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.; 2012. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nutritionreport/pdf/Nutrition_Book_complete508_final.pdf [PDF - 11.5 MB].
  8. National Research Council. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2005. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10490.
  9. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2011. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13050.
  10. National Research Council. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2005. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10925.
  11. National Research Council. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2001. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10026.
  12. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2000. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9810.
  13. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 1998. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=6015.
  14. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 1997. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=5776.
  15. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels; Proposed Rule. Federal Register. March 3, 2014; 79(41). Available from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-03-03/pdf/2014-04387.pdf [PDF - 2.3 MB].
  16. Food Pattern Modeling Analysis: Adequacy of the USDA Food Patterns
    (Note: Draft report and tables available upon request [PDF - 179 KB].)

Food Group Intakes and Trends

What are current consumption patterns by USDA Food Pattern food groups in the U.S. population? (source 1)

What are the trends in consumption patterns by USDA Food Pattern food groups in the U.S. population? (sources 1, 2)

  1. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2007-10: Applied Research Program. National Cancer Institute; [updated May 22, 2014]. Available from: http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/usualintakes/pop/2007-10/.
  2. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, US Population, 2001-04: Applied Research Program. National Cancer Institute; [updated April 2, 2014]. Available from: http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/usualintakes/pop/2001-04/.

Eating Behaviors

What are the current status and trends in the number of daily eating occasions and frequency of meal skipping? (source 1)

How do diet quality and energy content vary based on eating occasion? (source 2)

What are the current status and trends in the location of meal and snack consumption and sources of food and beverages consumed at home and away from home? (source 3, 5)

What is the diet quality and energy content based on the food and beverage source? (source 4, 5)

  1. Percent of the U.S. population consuming or skipping meals and snacks, 2001-02, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009-10 by age/gender groups, race/ethnicity, and percent of the poverty threshold
    U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. Food Surveys Research Group. What We Eat in America [updated 10/29/2013]. Available from: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349.
  2. Percent of total energy and nutrient intake by meal/snack, 2001-02, 2005-06, 2007-08 and 2009-10 by age/gender groups, race/ethnicity, and percent of the poverty threshold
    U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. Food Surveys Research Group. What We Eat in America [updated 10/29/2013]. Available from: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=18349.
  3. Percent of energy intake from major points of purchase and location of eating, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009-10 for the U.S. population 2 years and older. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC.) Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/data-table-1.asp
  4. Food group and nutrient content of foods per 1000 kcal obtained from major points of purchase, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009-10 for the U.S. population 2 years and older. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC.) Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/data-table-2.asp
  5. Lin B-H, Guthrie J. Nutritional Quality of Food Prepared at Home and Away From Home, 1977-2008, EIB-105: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service; December 2012. Available from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/eib-economic-information-bulletin/eib105.aspx.

Intake by Food Category

What are current consumption patterns by food categories (foods as consumed) in the U.S. population? (sources 1, 2)

What are the top foods contributing to energy intake in the U.S. population? (sources 1, 3)

What are the top foods contributing to sodium and saturated fat intake in the U.S. population? (sources 1, 3)

What is the contribution of beverage types to energy intake by the U.S. population? (sources 1,3)

  1. Major Categories and Subcategories used in DGAC Analyses of WWEIA Food Categories. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC.) Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/data-table-3.asp
  2. Percent of total food group intake, 2009-10 for U.S. population ages 2 years and older. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC.) Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/data-table-4.asp
  3. Percent of total energy and nutrient intake for the U.S. population ages 2 years and older from specified food categories. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC.) Available from: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/data-table-6.asp

Prevalence of Health Concerns and Trends

What is the current prevalence of overweight/obesity and distribution of body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in the U.S. population and age, gender, racial/ethnic, and income subgroups? What are the trends in prevalence?

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Body Mass Index Among Children and Adolescents Ages 2 - 19 years, NHANES 2009 -2012. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC. Tables available upon request [PDF - 179 KB].)
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Body Mass Index, Adults 20 y and over, NHANES 2009 -2012. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC. Tables available upon request [PDF - 179 KB].)
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Table 74. Healthy weight, overweight, and obesity among persons 20 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007-2010. Health, United States, 2011. 2011. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2011/074.pdf [PDF - 225 KB].
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Table 69. Obesity among children and adolescents aged 2-19 years, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1963-1965 through 2009-2012. Health, United States, 2011. 2011. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2012/069.pdf [PDF - 61 KB].
  5. Ford ES, Li C, Zhao G, Tsai J. Trends in obesity and abdominal obesity among adults in the United States from 1999-2008. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011;35(5):736-43. PMID: 20820173. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20820173.
  6. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012;307(5):483-90. PMID: 22253364. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253364.
  7. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Lamb MM, Flegal KM. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008. JAMA. 2010;303(3):242-9. PMID: 20071470. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20071470.
  8. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA. 2006;295(13):1549-55. PMID: 16595758. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16595758.
  9. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. 2014;311(8):806-14. PMID: 24570244. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24570244.
  10. Ostchega Y, Hughes JP, Terry A, Fakhouri TH, Miller I. Abdominal obesity, body mass index, and hypertension in US adults: NHANES 2007-2010. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25(12):1271-8. PMID: 22895451. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22895451.

What are the current rates of nutrition-related health outcomes (i.e., incidence of and mortality from cancer [breast, lung, colorectal, prostate] and prevalence of high blood pressure, CVD, and type 2 diabetes) in the overall U.S. population?

Prevalence of Hypertension, High Lipid Levels, and Diabetes by Age/gender, Weight Status, and Race/ethnicity

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), adult 20 years and over, NHANES 2009 -2012. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC. Tables available upon request [PDF - 179 KB].)
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, adults 20 years and over, NHANES 2009-2012. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC. Tables available upon request [PDF - 179 KB].)
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides among adolescents ages 12-19 years, NHANES 2009-2012. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC. Tables available upon request [PDF - 179 KB].)
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and non-HDL-cholesterol among children and adolescents ages 6 -19 years, NHANES 2009 -2012. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC. Tables available upon request [PDF - 179 KB].)
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Prevalence of high and borderline high blood pressure (BP), children and adolescents, Ages 8-17 years, NHANES 2009-2012. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC. Tables available upon request [PDF - 179 KB].)
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES). Total diabetes, in adults 20 years and over, NHANES 2009 -2012. (Note: Data provided by Federal data analysis support staff at the request of the 2015 DGAC. Tables available upon request [PDF - 179 KB].)
  7. Dabelea D, Mayer-Davis EJ, Saydah S, Imperatore G, Linder B, Divers J, et al. Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009. JAMA. 2014;311(17):1778-86. PMID: 24794371. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24794371.
  8. Liu LL, Lawrence JM, Davis C, Liese AD, Pettitt DJ, Pihoker C, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth with diabetes in USA: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Pediatr Diabetes. 2010;11(1):4-11. PMID: 19473302. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19473302.
  9. Pettitt DJ, Talton J, Dabelea D, Divers J, Imperatore G, Lawrence JM, et al. Prevalence of diabetes in U.S. youth in 2009: the SEARCH for diabetes in youth study. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(2):402-8. PMID: 24041677. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24041677.
  10. Saydah S, Bullard KM, Cheng Y, Ali MK, Gregg EW, Geiss L, et al. Trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors by obesity level in adults in the United States, NHANES 1999-2010. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014. PMID: 24733690. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24733690.

Incidence and Mortality from Cancer (Breast, Lung, Colorectal, and Prostate) by Age/gender and Race/ethnicity Groups

  1. Howlader N, Noone A, Krapcho M, Garshell J, Miller D, Altekruse S, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; November 2013 [updated May 12, 2014]. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/.
  2. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Breast Cancer. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; [cited 2014 June 15]. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html.
  3. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Colon and Rectum Cancer. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; [cited 2014 June 15]. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/colorect.html.
  4. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Lung and Bronchus Cancer. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; [cited 2014 June 15]. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/lungb.html.
  5. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Prostate Cancer. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; [cited 2014 June 15]. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html.
  6. SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2011. Table 4.25 Cancer of the Breast (Invasive): United States Cancer Prevalence Estimates. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2011. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/browse_csr.php?sectionSEL=4&pageSEL=sect_04_table.25.html.
  7. SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2011. Table 6.28 Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (Invasive). United States Cancer Prevalence Estimates. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2011. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/browse_csr.php?sectionSEL=6&pageSEL=sect_06_table.28.html.
  8. SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2011. Table 15.27 Cancer of the Lung And Bronchus (Invasive (Invasive). United States Cancer Prevalence Estimates. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2011. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/browse_csr.php?sectionSEL=15&pageSEL=sect_15_table.27.html.
  9. SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2011. Table 23.15 Cancer of the Prostate (Invasive). United States Cancer Prevalence Estimates. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2011. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/browse_csr.php?sectionSEL=23&pageSEL=sect_23_table.15.html.

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease (i.e., Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke)

  1. Blackwell D, Lucas J, Clarke T. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2012. Vital Health Stat 10(260). National Center for Health Statistics; 2014. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_260.pdf [PDF - 3.7 MB].
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Table 44. Respondent-reported prevalence of heart disease, cancer, and stroke among adults aged 18 and over, by selected characteristics: United States, average annual, selected years 1997-1998 through 2011-2012. Health, United States, 2012: Web Updates. 2011. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2012/044.pdf [PDF - 102 KB].
  3. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Blaha MJ, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014;129(3):e28-e292. PMID: 24352519. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24352519.