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Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005

Part II: Menu Planning

I. Purpose

The purpose of this document is to provide technical assistance on how to apply the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005 (DGAs) in planning menus for Older Americans Act (OAA) nutrition programs. This technical assistance provides examples of menus that are consistent with the DGAs, meet the Dietary Reference Intakes/Recommended Dietary Allowances/Adequate Intakes (DRsI/RDAs/AIs), the number of servings from each food group, a computer generated nutrient analysis of each menu, and quantity recipes for food items in the sample menus.

II. Methods

Menus were developed and analyzed by the National Resource Center on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Aging at Florida International University. Nutrient analysis was performed using Food Processor computer software by ESHA Research. All foods and ingredients selected from the ESHA database are USDA standard reference values unless unavailable. In those cases, the most common brand name item was selected. When available, a low sodium product was chosen. Soups, salads and beans were prepared from scratch with limited salt or no added salt.

III. Menu Development

The OAA places responsibility for implementing the DGAs on the State Units on Aging (SUAs) and Indian Tribal Organizations (ITOs) [OAA Sections 339 and 614]. SUAs and ITOs may develop additional guidance to assure implementation of these requirements.

Two examples of eating patterns that exemplify the DGAs are the DASH Eating Plan and the USDA Food Guide. (More information on the DASH Eating Plan and USDA Food Guide are available at www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document/html/appendixA.htm). These eating patterns provide suggested amounts of food to consume from the basic food groups, subgroups, and oils, to meet the recommended nutrient intakes at various calorie levels. The sample menus in this technical assistance brief use the USDA Food Guide eating patterns to plan meals that provide between 550 and 700 calories. This calorie level is 1/3 of the estimated daily calorie requirements for sedentary men and women, age 51 and older. You will need to assess the activity level of your program participants in order to identify the number of calories needed in your program meals. If you have physically active program participants, you will need a higher calorie level. The estimated daily calorie requirements at different levels of physical activity are:

Sedentary Moderately Active Active
Women, age 51+ 1,600 Calories 1,800 Calories 2,000-2,200 Calories
Men, age 51+ 2,000 Calories 2,200-2,400 Calories 2,400-2,800 Calories


The DGAs recommend that individuals with hypertension, blacks, and middle-aged and older adults aim to consume no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day, and meet the potassium recommendation of 4,700 mg per day. These sample menus were planned with special attention to keeping sodium around 500 mg per meal and increasing potassium to around 1,500 mg per meal. We also included legumes twice per week, used whole grains in place of refined grains when possible, used fat-free milk, and increased the number and variety of fruits and vegetables.

Although we used the USDA Food Guide as our menu pattern in developing the sample menus, we recommend that you adopt a menu pattern based on either the DASH Eating Plan or the USDA Food Guide to assist in menu planning for your program. By providing the recommended number of servings from each food group in either of these plans, it is likely that your menus will meet the DRI/RDAs. For example, since most prepared breads and ready-to-eat cereals are fortified with the B vitamins, consuming the recommended number of servings will assure consumption of adequate amounts of thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and folate. However, some nutrients are of particular concern for adults, especially adequate dietary intakes of calcium, potassium, magnesium, fiber, and vitamins A, C, and E. Additionally, over-consumption of sodium, saturated fat, trans fats, and cholesterol are of concern for adults.

Although all the nutrients are important, we focused on the following nutrients when planning the sample menus: In addition to providing the recommended number of servings from each food group, using nutrient analysis software will help you assess the nutrient adequacy of your meals. The most reliable nutrient analysis software uses a large nutrient data base like the Agriculture Research Service (ARS) Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 17. Since nutrient databases vary, not all food products are included in various databases, and there is not a complete nutrient analysis of some foods, meals are considered to meet nutrient requirements when they were within 5% of the RDA/AI values. Since food manufacturers usually have the nutrient analysis for their products, you may want to contact them for the nutrient analysis of foods you use frequently but are not able to find in the nutrient databases.

DASH MEAL PLAN
FOOD GROUP 550 Calories per Meal 700 Calories per Meal Serving Sizes
Grains 2 servings (Whole grains are suggested for most servings to meet fiber recommendations) 2 ½ - 3 servings 1 slice bread; 1 oz dry cereal (= ½ to 1 ¼ cups, depending on cereal type - check product's Nutrition Facts Label); ½ cup cooked rice or pasta
Vegetables 1 – 1 1/3 servings 1 ½ - 2 servings 1 cup raw leafy vegetable; ½ cup cooked vegetable; 6 oz vegetable juice
Fruits 1 – 1 1/3 servings 1 1/3 - 1 ¾ servings 6 oz fruit juice; 1 medium fruit; ¼ cup dried fruit; ½ cup fresh, frozen, or canned fruit
Low-fat or fat-free dairy foods 2/3 - 1 serving 2/3 - 1 serving 8 oz milk; 1 cup yogurt; 1 ½ oz cheese
Meat, poultry, fish 1/3 -2/3 serving 2/3 serving 3 oz cooked meats, poultry, or fish
Nuts, seeds, legumes 1 – 1 1/3 servings 1 ½ - 2 servings 1/3 cup or 1 ½ oz nuts;
2 Tbsp or ½ oz seeds;
½ cup cooked dry beans or peas
Fat & oils 2/3 serving/week 2/3 - 1 serving/week 1 tsp soft margarine; 1 Tbsp low-fat mayonnaise; 2 Tbsp light salad dressing; 1 tsp vegetable oil
Sweets 0 servings 1 2/3 servings/week 1 Tbsp sugar; 1 Tbsp jelly or jam; ½ oz jelly beans; 8 oz lemonade


USDA FOOD GUIDE MEAL PLAN
FOOD GROUP 550 Calories per Meal 700 Calories per Meal Serving Sizes
Grains
Whole grains
Other grains
1.7 oz-equivalents
1.0 oz-equivalent
0.7 oz-equivalent
2 oz-equivalents
1 oz-equivalent
1 oz-equivalent
1 oz-equivalents include:
½ c cooked rice, pasta, cooked cereal;
1 oz dry pasta or rice;
1 slice bread;
1 small muffin;

1 cup ready-to-eat cereal flakes.
Vegetables 2/3 cup (1.3 servings) ¾ cup (1.5 servings) 1 cup leafy salad greens; ½ cup cut-up raw or cooked vegetables; ½ cup vegetable juice.
Fruits ½ cup (1 serving) 2/3 cup (1.3 servings) ½ cup cut-up raw or cooked fruits; ½ cup fruit juice.
Milk 1 cup 1 cup 1 cup milk or yogurt;
1 ½ oz natural cheese; or
2 oz processed cheese.
Lean meat & beans 1.7 oz-equivalents 1.8 oz-equivalents 1 oz lean meat, poultry, or fish;
1 egg; ¼ cup dry beans or tofu;

1 Tbsp peanut butter; or
½ oz nuts or seeds.
Oils 7 grams 9 grams
Discretionary Calorie Allowance 44 calories 89 calories


SAMPLE MENUS (Food Groups Based on USDA Food Guide Meal Plan)
FOOD GROUP GRAIN VEGETABLE FRUIT MILK MEAT & BEANS
Servings for 550-700 calorie meals 1.7 - 2 oz-equivalents 1.5 - 2 servings 1 - 1.3 servings 1 cup 1.7 - 1.8 oz-equivalents
DAY 1

Roast Turkey, Baked Sweet Potato, Broccoli, Whole Wheat Roll, Apple Raisin Crisp, Fat-free Milk + Coffee/Tea
2 oz-equivalents (1 small roll) (½ cup topping on crisp) 2 servings 1 serving 1 cup 2 oz-equivalents
Day 2

Latin Roasted Pork, Cuban Style Black Beans, Rice, Garden Salad + Italian Dressing, Strawberries + Graham Crackers, Fat-free Milk + Coffee/Tea
2 oz-equivalents (½ cup rice) (2 graham crackers) 2 servings (½ cup salad) (½ cup black beans) 1 serving 1 cup 3 oz-equivalents (2 oz pork) (½ cup black beans)
Day 3

Open-faced Meatloaf Sandwich, Baked Winter Squash, Waldorf Salad on Bed of Greens, Orange-Rice Pudding, Fat-free Milk + Coffee/Tea
2 oz-equivalents (1 oz slice bread) (½ cup rice pudding) 2 servings 1.25 servings (½ cup apples and raisins) (¼ cup orange juice) 1.5 cups (1 cup milk) (½ cup pudding) 2 oz- equivalents
Day 4

Stewed Chicken with Vegetables, Egg Noodles, 5-Bean Salad, Fresh Fruit with Yogurt Dip, Fat-free Milk + Coffee/Tea
2 oz-equivalent (1 cup noodles) 2 servings 1 serving 1.25 cups (1 cup milk) (¼ cup yogurt) 3 oz-equivalents (2 oz chicken) (½ cup beans)
Day 5

Baked Salmon, Wild Rice with Dried Apricots, Creamed Spinach, Whole Wheat Roll Fresh Fruit—Melon Ball Salad Fat-free Milk + Coffee/Tea
2 oz-equivalents (½ cup rice) (1 small roll) 1 serving 1.5 servings (½ melon ball salad) (¼ cup dried apricots) 1.5 cups (1 cup milk) (½ cup milk in spinach) 2 oz-equivalents


Table 1: Dietary Reference Intakes for Older Adults

Vitamins and Elements, Males 51-70
Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Thiamin
(ug)b,c (mg) (ug)d,e (mg)f,g,h (ug) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 900 90 10* 15 120* 1.2
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 3000 2000 50 1000 ND ND
Vitamin
B12
Pantothenic
Acid
Biotin Choline Boron Calcium
(ug)k (mg) (ug) (mg)l (mg) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 2.4 5* 30* 550* ND 1200*
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND ND ND 3500 20 2500

Vitamins and Elements, Males 51-70
Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate
(mg) (mg)h,i (mg) (ug)h,j
RDA or AI 1 1.3 16 1.7 400
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND 35 100 1000
Chromium Copper Fluoride Iodine
(ug) (ug) (mg) (ug)
RDA or AI 1 30* 900 4* 150
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND 10000 10 1100

Elements & Macro Nutrients, Males 51-70
Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel
(mg) (mg) m (mg) (mg) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 8 420 2.3* 45 ND
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 45 350 11 2000 1
Energy 2 Protein 3 Carbohydrates 4 Total Fat 5,6
(Kcal) (g) (g) (% Kcal)
RDA or AI 1 2204 56 130
AMDR 7 10-35% 45-65% 20-35%

Elements & Macro Nutrients, Males 51-70
Phosphorus Selenium Vanadium Zinc
(mg) (ug) (mg) n (mg)
RDA or AI 1 700 55 ND 11
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 4000 400 1.8 40
n -6 PUFA n -3 PUFA Total Fiber Drinking water, Beverages, Water in Food (L)
(g) (g) (g)
RDA or AI 1 14* 1.6* 30* 3.7*
AMDR 7 5-10% 0.6-1.2%

Electrolytes, Males 51-70
Potassium Sodium Chloride
(g) (g) (g)
RDA or AI ± 4.7 1.3* 2.0*
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 2.3 3.6

± Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are in bold type; Adequate Intakes (AIs) are in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). Values in this table were excerpted from the Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, 2004.

Vitamins and Elements, Females 51-70
Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Thiamin
(ug)b,c (mg) (ug)d,e (mg)f,g,h (ug) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 700 75 10* 15 90* 1.1
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 3000 2000 50 1000 ND ND
Vitamin
B12
Pantothenic
Acid
Biotin Choline Boron Calcium
(ug)k (mg) (ug) (mg)l (mg) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 2.4 5* 30* 425* ND 1200*
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND ND ND 3500 20 2500

Vitamins and Elements, Females 51-70
Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate
(mg) (mg)h,i (mg) (ug)h,j
RDA or AI 1 1.1 14 1.5 400
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND 35 100 1000
Chromium Copper Fluoride Iodine
(ug) (ug) (mg) (ug)
RDA or AI 1 20* 900 3* 150
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND 10000 10 1100

Elements & Macro Nutrients, Females 51-70
Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel
(mg) (mg) m (mg) (mg) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 8 320 1.8* 45 ND
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 45 350 11 2000 1
Energy 2 Protein 3 Carbohydrates 4 Total Fat 5,6 n -6 PUFA
(Kcal) (g) (g) (% Kcal) (g)
RDA or AI 1 1978 46 130 11*
AMDR 7 10-35% 45-65% 20-35% 5-10%

Elements & Macro Nutrients, Females 51-70
Phosphorus Selenium Vanadium Zinc
(mg) (ug) (mg) n (mg)
RDA or AI 1 700 55 ND 8
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 4000 400 1.8 40
n -3 PUFA Total Fiber Drinking water, Beverages, Water in Food (L)
(g) (g)
RDA or AI 1 1.1* 21* 2.7*
AMDR 7 0.6-1.2%

Electrolytes, Females 51-70
Potassium Sodium Chloride
(g) (g) (g)
RDA or AI ± 4.7 1.3* 2.0*
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 2.3 3.6

± Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are in bold type; Adequate Intakes (AIs) are in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). Values in this table were excerpted from the Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, 2004.

Vitamins and Elements, Males 70+
Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Thiamin
(ug)b,c (mg) (ug)d,e (mg)f,g,h (ug) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 900 90 15* 15 120* 1.2
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 3000 2000 50 1000 ND ND
Vitamin
B12
Pantothenic
Acid
Biotin Choline Boron Calcium
(ug)k (mg) (ug) (mg)l (mg) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 2.4 5* 30* 550* ND 1200*
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND ND ND 3500 20 2500

Vitamins and Elements, Males 70+
Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate
(mg) (mg)h,i (mg) (ug)h,j
RDA or AI 1 1.3 16 1.7 400
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND 35 100 1000
Chromium Copper Fluoride Iodine
(ug) (ug) (mg) (ug)
RDA or AI 1 30* 900 4* 150
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND 10000 10 1100

Elements & Macro Nutrients, Males 70+
Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel
(mg) (mg) m (mg) (mg) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 8 420 2.3* 45 ND
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 45 350 11 2000 1
Energy 2 Protein 3 Carbohydrates 4 Total Fat 5,6 n -6 PUFA
(Kcal) (g) (g) (% Kcal) (g)
RDA or AI 1 2054 56 130 14*
AMDR 7 10-35% 45-65% 20-35% 5-10%

Elements & Macro Nutrients, Males 70+
Phosphorus Selenium Vanadium Zinc
(mg) (ug) (mg) n (mg)
RDA or AI 1 700 55 ND 11
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 4000 400 1.8 40
n -3 PUFA Total Fiber Drinking water, Beverages, Water in Food (L)
(g) (g)
RDA or AI 1 1.6* 30* 2.6*
AMDR 7 0.6-1.2%

Electrolytes, Males 70+
Potassium Sodium Chloride
(g) (g) (g)
RDA or AI ± 4.7 1.2* 1.8*
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 2.3 3.6

± Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are in bold type; Adequate Intakes (AIs) are in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). Values in this table were excerpted from the Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, 2004.

Vitamins and Elements, Females 70+
Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Thiamin
(ug)b,c (mg) (ug)d,e (mg)f,g,h (ug) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 700 75 15* 15 90* 1.1
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 3000 2000 50 1000 ND ND
Vitamin
B12
Pantothenic
Acid
Biotin Choline Boron Calcium
(ug)k (mg) (ug) (mg)l (mg) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 2.4 5* 30* 425* ND 1200*
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND ND ND 3500 20 2500

Vitamins and Elements, Females 70+
Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate
(mg) (mg)h,i (mg) (ug)h,j
RDA or AI 1 1.1 14 1.5 400
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND 35 100 1000
Chromium Copper Fluoride Iodine
(ug) (ug) (mg) (ug)
RDA or AI 1 20* 900 3* 150
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels ND 10000 10 1100

Elements & Macro Nutrients, Females 70+
Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel
(mg) (mg) m (mg) (mg) (mg)
RDA or AI 1 8 320 1.8* 45 ND
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 45 350 11 2000 1
Energy 2 Protein 3 Carbohydrates 4 Total Fat 5,6 n -6 PUFA
(Kcal) (g) (g) (% Kcal) (g)
RDA or AI 1 1873 46 130 11*
AMDR 7 10-35% 45-65% 20-35% 5-10%

Elements & Macro Nutrients, Females 70+
Phosphorus Selenium Vanadium Zinc
(mg) (ug) (mg) n (mg)
RDA or AI 1 700 55 ND 8
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 4000 400 1.8 40
n -3 PUFA Total Fiber Drinking water, Beverages, Water in Food (L)
(g) (g)
RDA or AI 1 1.1* 21* 2.1*
AMDR 7 0.6-1.2%

Electrolytes, Females 70+
Potassium Sodium Chloride
(g) (g) (g)
RDA or AI ± 4.7 1.2* 1.8*
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels 2.3 3.6

± Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are in bold type; Adequate Intakes (AIs) are in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). Values in this table were excerpted from the Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, 2004.

1 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are in bold type; Adequate Intakes (AIs) are in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*).
2 Values are based on Table 5-22 Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) for Men and Women 30 Years of Age. Used height of 5'7", "low active" physical activity level (PAL) and calculated the median BMI and calorie level for men and women. Caloric values based on age were calculated by subtracting 10 kcal/day for males (from 2504 kcal) and 7 kcal/day for females (from 2188 kcal) for each year of age above 30. For ages 51-70, calculated for 60 years old, for 70+, calculated for 75 years old. 80 year old male calculated to require 2004 kcal; female, 1838 kcal.
3 The RDA for protein equilibrium in adults is a minimum of 0.8 gm/kg body weight for reference body weight.
4 The RDA for carbohydrate is the minimum adequate to maintain brain function in adults.
5,6 Because % of energy consumed as fat can vary greatly and still meet energy needs, an AMDR is provided in absence of AI, EAR, or RDA for adults. Values for mono- and saturated fats and cholesterol not established as "they have no role in preventing chronic disease, thus not required in the diet."
7 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) for intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats expressed as % of total calories. Values in this table were excerpted from the Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment, 2000 and Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Protein and Amino Acids (Macronutrients) 2002.




SAMPLE MENUS

Day 1 (Special emphasis: fiber, potassium, sodium, vitamin E)

Roast Turkey
Baked Sweet Potato
Broccoli
Whole Wheat Roll
Apple Raisin Crisp
Fat-free Milk + Coffee/Tea

When developing this traditional style menu, we wanted to increase potassium. Initially we had included bread stuffing; a half cup serving provides 74 mg of potassium. By changing the bread stuffing to a baked sweet potato we were able to increase the potassium by 620 mg. In addition, the sodium was reduced by almost 500 mg and fiber increased by 2 g. The meal also gained in plate appeal by adding the bright orange sweet potato to an otherwise pale plate.

When analyzing this menu, we found that the meal was low in vitamin E. The original Apple Raisin Crisp recipe provided less than 0.39 mg vitamin E per serving. By adding almonds to the Apple Raisin Crisp recipe, we increased the vitamin E level almost 5-fold to 1.86 mg per serving, as well as increasing the mono-unsaturated fatty acids.

Day 2 (Special emphasis: legumes, sodium)

Latin Roasted Pork
Cuban Style Black Beans
Rice
Green Salad + Italian Dressing
Strawberries + Graham Crackers
Fat-free Milk + Coffee/Tea

This ethnic inspired menu easily conformed to nutrient requirements. By not using salt on the roasted pork or adding it to the water for cooking the rice, we greatly reduced the sodium content of the meal.

Day 3 (Special Emphasis: whole grains, fruit, vitamin E, calcium)

Open-faced Meatloaf Sandwich
Baked Winter Squash
Waldorf Salad on Bed of Greens
Orange Rice Pudding
Fat-free Milk + Coffee/Tea

This menu was originally designed with a baked potato and low-fat chocolate pudding. To meet the recommendation for grains, we changed the potato to a slice of 7-grain bread, made the meatloaf into an open-faced sandwich and used rice pudding in place of chocolate pudding. This increased the grains to meet the 2 grains per meal goal. Additionally, we replaced some of the water in the rice pudding with orange juice, thus increasing the vitamin C.

Including a Waldorf Salad in this menu accomplished several of the guidelines; provided a serving of fruit with the apples and raisins; provided a few vegetables with the lettuce and celery; provided vitamin E from the walnuts, and increased the mono-unsaturated fatty acid content.

We increased the nutrient content of the meatloaf by using fortified cereal as a binder. We also decreased the fat content by using lower fat ground turkey and beef.

Day 4 (Special emphasis: sodium, calcium, calories and legumes)

Stewed Chicken with Vegetables
Egg Noodles
Five Bean Salad
Fresh Fruit Salad with Citrus and Yogurt Dip
Fat-free Milk + Coffee/Tea

To control sodium in this menu, we manipulated the canned tomato product in the stewed chicken recipe. By selecting whole canned tomatoes without salt instead of tomato sauce, we reduced the sodium from 321 mg to 6 mg. By selecting fresh foods or canned foods prepared without salt, the sodium content of the meal can be better controlled. This approach can be used for tomato-based pasta dishes. For a rich and flavorful tomato sauce, sauté garlic and onions in a small amount of oil, then add pureed white beans (canned without salt or dried cooked beans) and canned whole tomatoes without salt, dried or fresh herbs like oregano, marjoram or basil. Most canned tomato sauces contain upwards of 500 mg sodium per half cup.

The Five Bean Salad addresses the DGA of including legumes several times per week. This salad increases the fiber content of the meal. The simple salad dressing includes vegetable oil which is a good source of vitamin E.

We finished this menu with fresh fruit salad served with a yogurt dip. This addresses several of the DGAs: adequate calories within nutritional needs, food groups to encourage, fiber, and low fat or fat-free milk products. A fruit dessert that is lower in calories than cake desserts can satisfy the desire for a sweet at the end of a meal. By embellishing the fruit with a sauce or dip made from low-fat yogurt, we are able to increase the calcium and potassium and provide a meal that meets the DGAs and is still appealing.

This meal is also reasonable in calories. The entrée is prepared by stewing which is a low-calorie method that does not include added fat. However, the inclusion of the vegetables and use of low-sodium broth enhances the flavor.

Day 5 (Special emphasis: legumes, whole grain, fiber, modifying traditional recipes)

Baked Salmon
Wild Rice with Dried Apricots
Creamed Spinach
Whole Wheat Roll
Fresh Fruit—Melon Ball Salad
Fat-free Milk + Coffee/Tea

To address the DGA goal to eat 2 grains, this meal includes wild rice as well as a whole wheat roll. The wild rice dish also includes dried apricots and slivered almonds; adding fruit, fiber and vitamin E. It also adds color and texture to the plate.

We altered the traditional recipe for creamed spinach by substituting evaporated skim milk for the heavy cream or whole milk. Adding dry skim milk powder to the recipe for creamed spinach adds richness as well as calcium without adding many calories.

IV. Summary

Menu development is both an art and a science. You develop menus so that people will have meals that are both appealing and nutritious. This can be a difficult task as these sample menus indicate. It is important to remember to use a menu pattern to plan meals, but use nutrient analysis to assess and assure nutrient adequacy of meals.

Appeal: These sample menus use good menu planning techniques. The menus are appealing and: Nutrition: These sample menus illustrate that menus can be developed that are: The sample menus illustrate that meals can be planned that meet the DGAs as well as the DRIs/RDAs/AIs and are appealing. However, they also illustrate that it takes thoughtful planning to meet the recommended levels of some nutrients, including vitamins D and E, magnesium, and potassium as well as to aim for a sodium content of 500 milligrams for each meal. As you will see from the Sample Menus, we did not reach the target for vitamin D and some meals provide more than 500 milligrams of sodium. The Institute of Medicine and the Department of Health and Human Services are struggling with the challenges of meeting the RDAs/AIs with food.

RECIPES

All recipes yield 25 servings.
All analyses are for 1 serving.

Roast Turkey
Serving Size: 2 oz

Ingredients:
4 lbs turkey breast (raw)

Directions:
  1. Line sheet trays with parchment paper.
  2. Lay out turkey breast in rows.
  3. Bake @ 350°F for 25 minutes.
  4. Internal temperature should be165°F to 170°F and juices should run clear.
  5. Allow to rest for 10 minutes.
  6. Slice 2 oz portions.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 85
Prot(g): 13
Carb(g): 0
Fiber(g): 0
Chol(mg): 33
A-RE(mcg): 0
B3(mg): 2.85
B6(mg): 0.21
B12(mcg): 0.16
Vitamin C (mg): 0
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.08
Calc(mg): 9
Potas(mg): 129
Sod(mg): 28

Gravy
Serving size: 2 Tb

3 ¼ cups low sodium poultry gravy, commercially prepared

Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 31
Prot(g): 2
Carb(g): 4
Fiber(g): 0.18
Chol(mg): 2
A-RE(mcg): 0
B3(mg): 0.39
B6(mg): 0.01
B12(mcg): 0.06
Vitamin C (mg): 0
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.04
Calc(mg): 4
Potas(mg): 48
Sod(mg): 11

Whole Wheat Dinner Roll
Serving size: 1 each

25 - 2 ½ inches, commercially prepared

Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 96
Prot(g): 3
Carb(g): 18
Fiber(g): 3
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 0
B3(mg): 1.32
B6(mg): 0.07
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 0
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.32
Calc(mg): 38
Potas(mg): 98
Sod(mg): 172

Sweet Potato
Serving Size: 1 small

Ingredients:
25 small sweet potatoes

Directions:
  1. Wash sweet potatoes thoroughly.
  2. Bake @ 350°F for 1 hour or until tender.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 131
Prot(g): 3
Carb(g): 30
Fiber(g): 5
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 2806
B3(mg): 2.17
B6(mg): 0.42
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 29
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 1.04
Calc(mg): 55
Potas(mg): 694
Sod(mg): 53

Broccoli
Serving Size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
5 lbs frozen broccoli

Directions:
  1. Defrost broccoli.
  2. Fill a large stock pot with water & bring to a boil.
  3. Add defrosted broccoli & cook for three minutes.
  4. Pour contents of stock pot into a colander & drain.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 20
Prot(g): 2
Carb(g): 4
Fiber(g): 2
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 80
B3(mg): 0.37
B6(mg): 0.1
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 44
D (mcg): 0
E (mg): 0.95
Calc(mg): 42
Potas(mg): 165
Sod(mg): 19

Apple Raisin Crisp
Serving size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
15 cups apple peeled & sliced
1 ¼ cups whole wheat flour
2 ½ cups whole wheat fortified flake cereal
1 ¾ cups brown sugar
1 ¼ cups raisins
1 ¾ cups sliced almonds
1 ¼ cups margarine

Directions:
  1. Put apples in shallow pan (12 x 18 x 2).
  2. Combine all dry ingredients with margarine & mix until crumbly.
  3. Sprinkle all this over apples.
  4. Bake at 375°F for 30 minutes.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 271
Prot(g): 3
Carb(g): 39
Fiber(g): 3
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 121
B3(mg): 4.32
B6(mg): 0.45
B12(mcg): 0.86
Vitamin C (mg): 11
D (mcg): 0.13
E (mg): 5.18
Calc(mg): 190
Potas(mg): 264
Sod(mg): 33

Black Beans
Serving Size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
3 lbs black beans
1 ¼ gallons water
3 bay leaves
1 Tb minced garlic
1 Tb cumin
1 Tb thyme
1 Tb oregano


Directions:
  1. Put all ingredients into a large stock pot with fitted lid.
  2. Bring water to a boil cover & reduce heat.
  3. Simmer for about 1 ½ hours or until beans are tender.
  4. Drain and serve.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 114
Prot(g): 8
Carb(g): 20
Fiber(g): 7
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 0.52
B3(mg): 0.43
B6(mg): 0.06
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 0
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.07
Calc(mg): 23
Potas(mg): 305
Sod(mg): 0.86

Cuban Style Roast Pork
Serving size: 2 oz

Ingredients:
1 ½ cups orange juice
¾ cup lime juice
1/3 cup crushed garlic
6 ¼ lbs pork loin roast

Directions:
  1. Combine first three ingredients for marinade & pour over roast in hotel pan. Cover & refrigerate overnight.
  2. Remove & reserve marinade in a separate pan. The reserved marinade will be boiled later & used as a sauce.
  3. Preheat the oven to 450°F. Roast the meat about 15 minutes.
  4. Reduce the heat to 350°F & roast another 40 minutes, or until juices run clear when the roast is pierced with a sharp knife. Internal temperature should be 155–160°F.
  5. Bring reserved marinade to a boil.
  6. Slice roast into 2 oz portions.
  7. Ladle reserved marinade over roast slices & serve.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 70
Prot(g): 10
Carb(g): 1
Fiber(g): 0.04
Chol(mg): 29
A-RE(mcg): 2
B3(mg): 2.42
B6(mg): 0.26
B12(mcg): 0.27
Vitamin C (mg): 5
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.09
Calc(mg): 12
Potas(mg): 188
Sod(mg): 31

Long Grain Rice
Serving Size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
4 lbs + 8 oz long grain rice

Directions:
  1. In large stock pot, cook rice until lightly golden stirring constantly.
  2. Add 2 quarts of water & bring to a boil.
  3. Cover & reduce heat.
  4. Simmer for 20 minutes.
  5. Remove from heat & allow pot to sit covered for 10 minutes.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 136
Prot(g): 3
Carb(g): 29
Fiber(g): 0.42
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 0
B3(mg): 1.54
B6(mg): 0.1
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 0
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.04
Calc(mg): 10
Potas(mg): 37
Sod(mg): 1

Garden Salad
Serving size: 1 cup lettuce + about ¼ cup other vegetables

Ingredients:
12 ½ cups romaine lettuce
1 ½ cups shredded carrots
3 cucumbers peeled & cut into slices
50 cherry tomatoes

Directions:
  1. Wash and cut lettuce in to 1” pieces.
  2. Peel and shred carrots.
  3. Wash and slice cucumbers.
  4. Wash cherry tomatoes.
  5. To assemble individual salads: Combine 1 cup lettuce, 1 Tb shredded carrot, 3 slices cucumber and 2 cherry tomatoes on a salad plate. Serve with 2 Tb Italian dressing.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 21
Prot(g): 1
Carb(g): 4
Fiber(g): 2
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 263
B3(mg): 0.52
B6(mg): 0.09
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 14
D (mcg): 0
E (mg): 0.62
Calc(mg): 39
Potas(mg): 305
Sod(mg): 21

Italian dressing
Serving size= 2 Tb

3 cups of Italian dressing, fat-free, commercially prepared

Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 86
Prot(g): 0.11
Carb(g): 3
Fiber(g): 0
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 1
B3(mg): 0
B6(mg): 0.02
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 0
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 1.47
Calc(mg): 2
Potas(mg): 14
Sod(mg): 486

Waldorf Salad
Serving: ½ cup

Ingredients:
12 apples, unpeeled, cored & chopped into bite size pieces (about 3 cups)
3 Tb lemon juice
1 cup raisins
2 cup chopped celery
1 cup chopped walnuts
1 cup low-fat, low-sodium mayonnaise
6 ¼ cup romaine lettuce

Directions:
  1. Combine apples, raisins, celery, & walnuts; sprinkle with lemon juice.
  2. Add mayonnaise & toss to coat all ingredients.
  3. Chill until ready to serve.
  4. Serve Waldorf salad on ¼ cup romaine lettuce.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 118
Prot(g): 1
Carb(g): 19
Fiber(g): 3
Chol(mg): 2
A-RE(mcg): 90
B3(mg): 0.24
B6(mg): 0.08
B12(mcg): 0.01
Vitamin C (mg): 8
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.56
Calc(mg): 20
Potas(mg): 199
Sod(mg): 19

Open Faced Meatloaf Sandwich
Serving size: 2 oz

Ingredients:
4 cup whole wheat fortified flake cereal
1 1/3 cup milk
1 cup chopped onion
4 egg
1 T. garlic powder
1 T pepper
2 lb 10% fat ground beef
2 lb 8% fat ground turkey
25 - 1 ounce slices of 7-grain bread

Directions:
  1. Crush cereal to measure ½ cup. Set aside.
  2. Combine milk, onion, egg, garlic powder & pepper in large mixing bowl.
  3. Mix in hamburger & crushed cereal.
  4. Divide into 4 loaf pans.
  5. Bake at 350°F for 45 minutes or until well browned.
  6. Slice meat loaf into 2 oz portions, place slice on 1 slice 7-grain bread, cover with gravy.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 167
Prot(g): 16
Carb(g): 7
Fiber(g): 0.76
Chol(mg): 91
A-RE(mcg): 51
B3(mg): 9
B6(mg): 0.93
B12(mcg): 2.5
Vitamin C (mg): 14
D (mcg): 0.43
E (mg): 3.34
Calc(mg): 278
Potas(mg): 259
Sod(mg): 122

Gravy
Serving size: 2 Tb

3 ¼ cups low sodium, beef gravy, commercially prepared

Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 15
Prot(g): 1
Carb(g): 1
Fiber(g): 0.12
Chol(mg): 0.87
A-RE(mcg): 0.29
B3(mg): 0.19
B6(mg): 0
B12(mcg): 0.03
Vitamin C (mg): 0
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.01
Calc(mg): 2
Potas(mg): 24
Sod(mg): 163

Orange Rice Pudding
Serving size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
5 cups long grain, enriched white rice, uncooked
10 cups non-fat milk
5 cups orange juice
¾ cup + 3 Tb honey
¾ cup + 3 Tb lemon juice

Directions:
  1. Cook rice without salt, according to package instructions.
  2. Combine warm rice with the remaining ingredients.
  3. Pour into 2 pans (12 x 20).
  4. Bake at 350° for 30 minutes, or until a knife inserted in center comes out clean.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 221
Prot(g): 6
Carb(g): 47
Fiber(g): 0.6
Chol(mg): 5
A-RE(mcg): 57
B3(mg): 1.68
B6(mg): 0.11
B12(mcg): 0.43
Vitamin C (mg): 11
D (mcg): 1.27
E (mg): 0.09
Calc(mg): 129
Potas(mg): 226
Sod(mg): 46

Baked Winter Squash
Serving Size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
13 cups winter squash

Directions:
  1. Wash squash thoroughly.
  2. Cut into ½ cubes.
  3. Spread squash on a sheet tray lined with parchment paper.
  4. Baked for 15-20 minutes or until squash is tender but still firm.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 38
Prot(g): 1
Carb(g): 9
Fiber(g): 37
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 535
B3(mg): 0.51
B6(mg): 0.17
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 10
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.12
Calc(mg): 23
Potas(mg): 448
Sod(mg): 1

7-Grain Bread
Serving size: 1 slice

Commercially prepared & sliced into ½ inch thick slices

Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 75
Prot(g): 3
Carb(g): 14
Fiber(g): 2
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 0
B3(mg): 1.31
B6(mg): 0.1
B12(mcg): 0.02
Vitamin C (mg): 0.09
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.1
Calc(mg): 27
Potas(mg): 61
Sod(mg): 146

5 Bean Salad
Serving size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
2 cups green beans, cooked & drained*
2 ½ cups kidney beans, cooked & drained*
2 ½ cups garbanzo beans, cooked & drained*
2 ½ cups black beans, cooked & drained*
2 ½ cups pinto beans, cooked & drained*
¾ cups green onions, top & bulb chopped
¾ cup oil
¾ cup red wine vinegar
½ cup minced garlic
½ tsp black pepper
chopped parsley for garnish


Directions:
  1. Combine all ingredients.
  2. Chill before serving.
* If using canned beans, use low-sodium beans. Drain & rinse beans. The sodium level may be higher than figures given below.

Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 185
Prot(g): 7
Carb(g): 22
Fiber(g): 7
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 21
B3(mg): 0.53
B6(mg): 0.14
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 3.77
D (mcg): 0
E (mg): 1.56
Calc(mg): 44
Potas(mg): 336
Sod(mg): 3

Stewed Chicken & Vegetables
Serving size: 1 cup = 2 oz chicken + ½ cup vegetables + broth

Ingredients:
7 ½ lbs. chicken thighs, no skin, no bones
1/3 cup Tb olive oil
5 cups chopped tomatoes, canned unsalted
3 cans (14.5 oz) low sodium chicken broth
4 cups water
10 medium carrots cut into thirds
8 medium stalks celery, cut into thirds
5 medium onions, quartered
¾ cup chopped garlic
3 bay leaves
2 ½ tsp dried thyme
2 ½ tsp dried sage

Directions:
  1. Brown chicken slowly in olive oil.
  2. Add chopped tomatoes (with liquid), broth, & water.
  3. Heat to boil.
  4. Add carrots, celery, onion & garlic.
  5. Add dry herbs.
  6. Cover & reduce heat. Simmer for approximately 25 minutes or until chicken & vegetables are tender.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 95
Prot(g): 12
Carb(g): 4
Fiber(g): 0.77
Chol(mg): 44
A-RE(mcg): 157
B3(mg): 3.93
B6(mg): 0.24
B12(mcg): 0.21
Vitamin C (mg): 6
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.52
Calc(mg): 24
Potas(mg): 252
Sod(mg): 68

Egg Noodles
Serving size: 1 cup cooked

Ingredients:
3 lbs egg noodles, enriched (uncooked)

Directions:
  1. Bring to a boil 3 - 4 gallons of water.
  2. Add noodles.
  3. Cook until tender.
  4. Drain and serving
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 106
Prot(g): 4
Carb(g): 20
Fiber(g): 0.88
Chol(mg): 26
A-RE(mcg): 5
B3(mg): 1.19
B6(mg): 0.03
B12(mcg): 0.07
Vitamin C (mg): 0
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.13
Calc(mg): 9.6
Potas(mg): 22
Sod(mg): 6

Yogurt Dip
Serving size: 2 Tb

Ingredients:
3 ¼ cups low fat vanilla yogurt
1/3 cup honey
1 ½ tsp ground cinnamon

Directions:
  1. Combine all ingredients.
  2. Chill before serving.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 72
Prot(g): 3
Carb(g): 13
Fiber(g): 0.18
Chol(mg): 4
A-RE(mcg): 9
B3(mg): 0.09
B6(mg): 0.03
B12(mcg): 0.34
Vitamin C (mg): 0.62
D (mcg): 0
E (mg): 0.02
Calc(mg): 116
Potas(mg): 150
Sod(mg): 43

Fresh Fruit Salad with Citrus
Serving Size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
3 ½ cups cantaloupe, ½ inch cubes
3 cups seedless grapes
3 cups orange, peeled & sectioned
3 cups watermelon, ½ inch cubes

Directions:
  1. Combine all ingredients
  2. Chill before serving.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 37
Prot(g): 0.64
Carb(g): 9
Fiber(g): 0.96
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 92
B3(mg): 0.29
B6(mg): 0.05
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 23
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.1
Calc(mg): 14
Potas(mg): 156
Sod(mg): 4

Baked Atlantic Salmon
Serving Size: 2 oz

Ingredients:
3 ¼ lbs Atlantic salmon
½ Tb garlic powder

Directions:
  1. Rinse salmon under cold water.
  2. Place salmon skin side down on parchment-lined sheet tray.
  3. Sprinkle with garlic powder.
  4. Cover with aluminum foil.
  5. Bake 25 – 30 minutes @ 350°F.
  6. Remove aluminum foil & bake another 5 minutes
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 117
Prot(g): 13
Carb(g): 0
Fiber(g): 0
Chol(mg): 36
A-RE(mcg): 8.5
B3(mg): 4.56
B6(mg): 0.37
B12(mcg): 1.59
Vitamin C (mg): 2.1
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.5
Calc(mg): 9
Potas(mg): 218
Sod(mg): 35

Wild Rice
Serving size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
3 lbs wild rice
1 gallon water
3 cups dried apricots, diced

Directions:
  1. Put rice in large pot.
  2. Add water & bring to a boil.
  3. Add dried apricots.
  4. Cover & reduce heat.
  5. Simmer 30 minutes.
  6. Remove from heat & fluff with a fork.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 83
Prot(g): 3.27
Carb(g): 18
Fiber(g): 1.5
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 0.25
B3(mg): 1.06
B6(mg): 0.11
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 0
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.2
Calc(mg): 2.46
Potas(mg): 83
Sod(mg): 2.5

Creamed Spinach
Serving size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
5 lbs frozen chopped spinach
3 ¼ cups evaporated non-fat milk
2 cups powdered non-fat milk
2 Tb black pepper
2 Tb nutmeg

Directions:
  1. Thaw & drain spinach.
  2. Combine all ingredients in large pot.
  3. Bring to boil, reduce heat
  4. Simmer 10 minutes, stirring frequently.
  5. Pour into serving pan.
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 71
Prot(g): 8
Carb(g): 10
Fiber(g): 3
Chol(mg): 2.15
A-RE(mcg): 1110
B3(mg): 0.61
B6(mg): 0.18
B12(mcg): 0.28
Vitamin C (mg): 22
D (mcg): 1.2
E (mg): 2.57
Calc(mg): 291
Potas(mg): 523
Sod(mg): 492

Whole Wheat Dinner Roll
Serving size: 1 each

25 - 2 ½ inches, commercially prepared

Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 96
Prot(g): 3
Carb(g): 18
Fiber(g): 3
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 0
B3(mg): 1.32
B6(mg): 0.07
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 0
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.32
Calc(mg): 38
Potas(mg): 98
Sod(mg): 172

Melon Ball Salad
Serving Size: ½ cup

Ingredients:
4 ½ cups cantaloupe
4 cups watermelon
4 cups honeydew

Directions:
  1. Carve melons using ½-inch melon-baller.
  2. Mix all melon balls together.
  3. Chill before serving
Nutrient analysis:

Cals(kcal): 36
Prot(g): 0.64
Carb(g): 9
Fiber(g): 1
Chol(mg): 0
A-RE(mcg): 92
B3(mg): 0.29
B6(mg): 0.05
B12(mcg): 0
Vitamin C (mg): 23
D (mcg): --
E (mg): 0.1
Calc(mg): 14
Potas(mg): 156
Sod(mg): 4