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PART D: SCIENCE BASE

Table D4-2. Correlation Coefficients Between Dietary Polyunsaturated Fat (PUFA) Intake and Coronary Artery Disease Mortality and Relative Risk or Cases

Study Years of Followup Diet Assessment Methods Number of Subjects Number of Subjects With Coronary Artery Disease PUFA Intakes Percent Energy PUFA Correlation Coefficients Relative Risk or cases
CROSS-POPULATION STUDIES
Seven Countries, Study, Keys, 1970 1958–1964 (5 year) 7-day weighed record, composite analysis (subsample) 12,770 --- 3 to 7 percent NS ---
Eighteen Countries Study, Hegsted and Ausman, 1988 1954–1965, 1973 Food disappearance statistics --- --- 1.4 to 10.9 percent -0.34 CHD mortality predicted by SFA and PUFA intake (r=0.79)
Forty Countries Study, Artraud-Wild et al., 1993 1957–1977, 1977 Food disappearance statistics --- --- --- --- -0.332 After adjustment for cholesterol and SFA
Seven Countries Study, Kromhout et al., 1995 25 year Retrospectively constructed food composites (n=498) 12,763 ~1,900 deaths 3.4 to 8.6 percent n-6: 0.0
n-3: -0.36
---
WITHIN-POPULATION STUDIES
Puerto Rico Heart Health Program, Garcia-Palmieri et al., 1980 Prospective 6 year 24-hour recall 8,218 men 73 (rural) 213 (urban) 4 percent (rural) 6.6 percent (urban) --- 11 vs 109 cases
16 vs 17 cases
Three Populations Study, Gordon et al., 1981 Prospective 4 year Framingham
Prospective 6 year Honolulu Heart
Prospective 6 year Puerto Rico Heart Health
24-hour recall


24-hour recall



24-hour recall
859 men


7,272 men



8,218 men
79


264



286
5.7 percent


5.6 percent



6.4 percent
---


---



---
5.4 vs 5.810

6.0 vs 6.73



5.3 vs 6.03
Western Electric Study, Shekelle et al., 19816 Prospective 19 year Diet history 1,900 men --- 3.9 percent -0.2583 Low—13.58
Mid—10.4
High—10.1
Honolulu Heart Prgm., McGee et al., 1984 Prospective 10 year 24-hour recall 7,088 men 456 6 percent --- 0.09311
Ireland-Boston Diet-Heart Study, Kushi et al., 1985 Prospective 20 y Diet history 1,001 men 102 deaths 2.1-3.4 percent -0.0695 ---
Belgium Study, Joossens et al., 1989 Longitudinal (1980–1984) 24-hour recall 21,500 men and women --- 14 to 27 g/d Men –0.734
Women –0.413
---
Framingham Study, Posner et al., 1991 Prospective 16 y 24-hour recall 420 men (44-55 y) 99 5.5 percent 0.065 RR = 1.34
Framingham Study, Posner et al., 1991 Prospective 16 y 24-hour recall 393 men (>55 y) 114 5.4 percent 0.051 RR = 1.27
ARIC Study, Tell et al., 1994 Longitudinal (1987-1989) Semiquantitative food frequency 2,095 BF

5,146 WF

1,319 BM

4,589 WM
(Carotid artery thickness) 5 percent BF
5.1 percent WF
4.8 percent BM
5.1 percent WM
--- -0.003BF5

-0.007 WF

-0.012 BM

-0.011 WM
Health Professionals Follow-up Study, Ascherio et al., 1996
Prospective 6 y Food frequency questionnaire 43,757 734 coronary events 7.6 to 15.4 g/day --- MI = NS
Fatal CHD = 0.5812
Nurses’ Health Study, Hu et al., 1997 Prospective 14 y Semiquantitative food frequency
80,082 939 nonfatal MI or CHD death 2.9 percent
3.9 percent
4.6 percent
5.3 percent
6.4 percent
--- 1.013

0.94

0.88

0.81

0.68
NHLBI Family Heart Study, Djousse et al., 2001 Cross-sectional Semiquantitative food frequency 4,5841 566 were at high risk of CAD 3.97 g/d
6.76 g/d
11.68 g/d
--- 1.014
0.6
0.6
Jerusalem Acute MI Registry, Kark et al., 2003 Cross-sectional Diet food frequency instrument 672 180 10 percent
90 percent had > 6 percent
25 percent had > 12 percent
NS
OR = 0.96

1ARIC, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; BF, black females; WF, white females; BM, black males; WM, white males.

2P < 0.05.

3P < 0.01.

4P < 0.001.

5Scaled difference in carotid wall thickness; p+0.056 WM.

6Correlation of Keys score: 0.027 (P<0.001); correlation for Hegsted equation: 0.029 (P<0.01).

7Correlation of Keys score: 0.025 (P<0.05); correlation for Hegsted equation: 0.01 (P<0.05).

8Percent of coronary death according to tertile of PUFA intakes.

9Non-cases vs cases.

10PUFA intake for noncases vs cases.

11Multivariate logistic coefficient for CHD.

12P < 0.05 for multivariate adjusted relative risk.

13P for trend = 0.003

14Prevalence odds ratio for CAD.

-Source: adapted from Cagguila and Mustad, 1997.

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