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Expanding the Reach and Impact of
Consumer e-Health Tools

June 2006

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion logo

Table of Contents
Executive Summary (Stand-Alone)
Acknowledgments
Preface: A Vision of e-Health Benefits for All
Executive Summary
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Mapping Diversity to Understand Users’ Requirements for e-Health Tools
Chapter 3. Assessing the Evidence Base for e-Health Tools for Diverse Users
Chapter 4. Strategic Factors in Realizing the Potential of e-Health
Chapter 5. Partnerships for Meaningful Access
Conclusion
Appendix 1. Environmental Scan of 40 e-HealthTools
Appendix 2. Project Interviewees, Experts Consulted, and Reviewers
Appendix 3. Chapter 3 Literature Review Summary
References

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Appendix 4. A Comparison of Internet Use and Health Status of Populations That Experience Health Disparities (Part 4)

3. Asthma

3.1 Race and Ethnicity

Blacks/African Americans have higher rates of hospitalization for asthma compared to Whites at all ages, but particularly for children under the age of 5 (Figure 16). Yet, Blacks/African Americans have the lowest rate of Internet use among racial and ethnic groups (Figure 15).

Figure 15

Figure 15 depicts data for the following eight racial/ethnic groups: (1) American Indian/Native American, (2) Asian or Pacific Islander, (3) Black or African American, (4) White, (5) Hispanic or Latino, (6) Not Hispanic or Latino, (7) Not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American, and (8) Not Hispanic or Latino, White. Figure 15 compares percentage of individuals from different racial and ethnic populations that go online to access the Internet/WWW or to send/receive email and shows that Not Hispanic or Latino Blacks or African Americans (46.4%), Blacks or African Americans (46.7%), American Indians/Native Americans (52.4%), and Hispanics or Latinos (58.0%), have lower rates of Internet use compared to Asians or Pacific Islanders (74.3%), Whites (60.5%), Not Hispanic or Latino Whites (60.5%), and Not Hispanics or Latinos (59.3%).d

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project’s Daily Internet Tracking Survey,
2002–2003


Figure 16

Figure 16 depicts data for the following eight racial/ethnic groups: (1) American Indian/Native American, (2) Asian or Pacific Islander, (3) Black or African American, (4) White, (5) Hispanic or Latino, (6) Not Hispanic or Latino, (7) Not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American, and (8) Not Hispanic or Latino, White.  The figure compares hospitalizations for asthma by race and ethnicity and shows that the rate per 10,000 population in Blacks or African Americans is 103.4% in individuals under age 5, 25.0% age 5 to 64, and 25.1% age 65 and over, while for Whites the rate is 37.6% in individuals under age 5, 6.9% age 5 to 64, and 15.3% age 65 and over. Data do not meet the criteria for statistical reliability, data quality, or confidentiality for the following populations: American Indians/Native Americans, Asians or Pacific Islanders, Hispanics or Latinos, Not Hispanics or Latinos, Not Hispanic or Latino Blacks or African Americans, and Not Hispanic or Latino Whites.d

Source: CDC Wonder. DATA2010…the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2004

DSU = Data do not meet the criteria for statistical reliability, data quality, or confidentiality.

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3.2 Gender

Male children have higher rates of hospitalizations for asthma compared to female children, while older females have higher hospitalization rates compared to older males (Figure 18). Internet use, in general, does not differ largely between males and females (Figure 17).

Figure 17

Figure 17 compares percentage of individuals by gender who go online to access the Internet/WWW or to send/receive email and shows that more males (61.6%) use the Internet than females (56.7%).d

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project's Daily Internet Tracking Survey,
2002-2003


Figure 18

Figure 18 compares hospitalizations for asthma by gender and shows that the rate per 10,000 population for males is greater under age 5 (71.4%) than age 5 to 64 (8.5%) and age 65 and over (11.8%).  In females, the rate is greater under age 5 (40.3%) than age 5 to 64 (14.8%) and age 65 and over (27.9%).d

Source: CDC Wonder. DATA2010…the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2004

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