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Expanding the Reach and Impact of
Consumer e-Health Tools

June 2006

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion logo

Table of Contents
Executive Summary (Stand-Alone)
Preface: A Vision of e-Health Benefits for All
Executive Summary
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Mapping Diversity to Understand Users’ Requirements for e-Health Tools
Chapter 3. Assessing the Evidence Base for e-Health Tools for Diverse Users
Chapter 4. Strategic Factors in Realizing the Potential of e-Health
Chapter 5. Partnerships for Meaningful Access
Appendix 1. Environmental Scan of 40 e-HealthTools
Appendix 2. Project Interviewees, Experts Consulted, and Reviewers
Appendix 3. Chapter 3 Literature Review Summary

< Back to Appendix 4 (Tobacco Use)

Appendix 4. A Comparison of Internet Use and Health Status of Populations That Experience Health Disparities (Part 9)

Data Sources and Methodology

Pew Internet & American Life Project

Data from the 2002–2003 Pew Internet & American Life Project’s Daily Internet Tracking Survey were used to construct the Internet use profiles presented in the charts. The datasets that were analyzed include all cases of completed surveys aggregated for 2002 (n=25,908) and March through August 2003 (n=20,871).1 The sample for the survey is a random digit sample of telephone numbers selected from telephone exchanges in the continental United States. Respondents were English-speaking adults older than age 18 and living in the continental United States. (In the most recent Pew Research Center survey conducted in October/November 2005, respondents were given the opportunity to answer an English-language or Spanish-language questionnaire. Of 271 Hispanics, 110 chose the Spanish option and 161 chose English.) Sample data are weighted based on demographic weighting parameters derived from the most recently available U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey. This produces population parameters for the demographic characteristics of adults age 18 or older who live in households that contain a telephone.

Select questions were chosen from the survey instrument to analyze computer/Internet use, Internet activities, locations of access, and the frequency of Internet use from home. For the purposes of this document, the activities of going online to access the Internet and sending or receiving e-mail were used to determine which respondents were Internet users. This classification was based on the respondent pool that answered “yes” to the question, “Do you use a computer at the workplace, home, or anywhere else on at least an occasional basis?” Cross-tabulation of the selected questions by the various population groups was the main method of analysis. In the latest Pew Research Center survey conducted in October/November 2005, Pew used two questions to determine if someone was an Internet user: “Do you use the Internet, at least occasionally?” and “Do you send or receive e-mail, at least occasionally?”

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DATA2010 is an interactive database system developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics, Health Promotion Statistics Division, which contains the most recent monitoring data for tracking Healthy People 2010. The data are updated quarterly. Data used in this document were obtained from the January 2004 edition.

DATA2010 also includes a set of measures relevant for tracking progress for the HealthierUS initiative. HealthierUS is the national initiative to ensure that Americans live longer, better, and healthier lives. The initiative focuses on reducing the burden of disease and addressing lifestyle choices that will foster healthy behaviors through personal and social responsibility.

Data on the following health topics are presented in this appendix:

  • Diabetes

  • Obesity

  • Asthma

  • Heart disease and stroke

  • Cancer

  • Poor nutrition and physical activity

  • Tobacco use

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Healthy People 2010 Population Group Table

Healthy People 2010 Population Groups Healthy People 2010 Definitions for Population Groups Sample Size From Pew's Daily Tracking Survey
Race and Ethnicity (Race and ethnicity categories are based on Office of Management and Budget [OMB] guidelines for reporting race and ethnicity. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race, and persons in the various race groups may be of any origin.)
American Indian or Alaska Native Persons having origins in any of the original people of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment 457
Asian or Pacific Islander Persons having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam 478
Asian Persons having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands
Black or African American Persons having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa 2,995
White Persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa 20,687
Hispanic or Latino Persons of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term, “Spanish origin,” can be used in addition to “Hispanic or Latino.” 2,455
Not Hispanic or Latino 23,170
Black or African American 2,752
White 19,177
Female 12,478
Male 13,430
Family Income Level (Poverty status measures family income relative to family size using the poverty thresholds developed by the U.S. Census, which are based on definitions originally developed by the Social Security Administration.)
Poor Below the Federal poverty level
Near poor 100–199% of the Federal poverty level
Middle/high income 200% or more of the Federal poverty level
Education Level (Educational level is typically measured by the number of years of education the individual has completed or by the highest credential received.)
Less than high school Persons with less than 12 years of schooling or no high school diploma 3,637
High school graduate Persons with either 12 years of schooling, a high school diploma, or GED 8,267
At least some college Persons with a high school diploma or GED and 13 or more years of schooling 13,797
Additional categories included where appropriate
Geographic Location (Urban residence is specified as either residing within or outside a metropolitan statistical area [MSA] or residing within or outside an urbanized area [UA]a or urban place, as designated by the U.S. Census Bureau.)
Urban Living within the boundaries of a UA and the urban portion of places outside a UA that have a decennial population of 2,500 or more 2,698
Rural 2,338
Health Insurance Status (Individuals are considered to have health insurance if they are covered by either private or public health plans. Health insurance information applies only to persons younger than 65 years of age. Those 65 and older are considered to be covered by Medicare.)
Private health insurance Includes fee-for-service plans, single-service hospital plans, and coverage by health maintenance organizations
Public health insurance Includes Medicaid or other public assistance, Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and military health plan coverage
No health insurance
Disability Status (Disability is operationally defined in a number of different ways for program purposes and for analytic and research purposes. For Healthy People 2010, disability is primarily defined using information on activity limitation or the use of special equipment.)
Persons with disabilities or activity limitations Defined based on information on activity limitation or the use of special equipment 687
Persons without disabilities or activity limitations 4,229
Select Populations
Age groups
School grade levels
Persons with select medical conditions

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. 2nd ed. With understanding and improving health and objectives for improving health. 2 vols. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, November 2000.

aA UA is an area consisting of a central place(s) and adjacent urban fringe that together have a minimum residential population of at least 50,000 people and generally an overall population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile of land area.

1The 2003 dataset was only used for data on disability status, as disability status was not included in the 2002 dataset.

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