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Expanding the Reach and Impact of
Consumer e-Health Tools

June 2006

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion logo

Table of Contents
Executive Summary (Stand-Alone)
Acknowledgments
Preface: A Vision of e-Health Benefits for All
Executive Summary
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Mapping Diversity to Understand Users’ Requirements for e-Health Tools
Chapter 3. Assessing the Evidence Base for e-Health Tools for Diverse Users
Chapter 4. Strategic Factors in Realizing the Potential of e-Health
Chapter 5. Partnerships for Meaningful Access
Conclusion
Appendix 1. Environmental Scan of 40 e-HealthTools
Appendix 2. Project Interviewees, Experts Consulted, and Reviewers
Appendix 3. Chapter 3 Literature Review Summary
References

< Back to Appendix 4 (Cancer)

Appendix 4. A Comparison of Internet Use and Health Status of Populations That Experience Health Disparities (Part 6)

5. Heart Disease and Stroke

5.1 Race and Ethnicity

Blacks/African Americans face significant disparities in mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke compared to members of other racial and ethnic groups (Figure 26). Internet use is also the lowest for this population (Figure 25).

Figure 25

Figure 25 depicts data for the following eight racial/ethnic groups: (1) American Indian/Native American, (2) Asian or Pacific Islander, (3) Black or African American, (4) White, (5) Hispanic or Latino, (6) Not Hispanic or Latino, (7) Not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American, and (8) Not Hispanic or Latino, White. The figure compares percentage of individuals from different racial and ethnic populations that go online to access the Internet/WWW or to send/receive email and shows that Not Hispanic or Latino Blacks or African Americans (46.4%), Blacks or African Americans (46.7%), American Indians/Native Americans (52.4%), and Hispanics or Latinos (58.0%), have lower rates of Internet use compared to Asians or Pacific Islanders (74.3%), Whites (60.5%), Not Hispanic or Latino Whites (60.5%), and Not Hispanics or Latinos (59.3%) .d

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project’s Daily Internet Tracking Survey,
2002–2003


Figure 26

Figure 26 depicts data for the following eight racial/ethnic groups: (1) American Indian/Native American, (2) Asian or Pacific Islander, (3) Black or African American, (4) White, (5) Hispanic or Latino, (6) Not Hispanic or Latino, (7) Not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American, and (8) Not Hispanic or Latino, White.  The figure compares mortality due to heart disease and stroke by race and ethnicity and shows that the age-adjusted rate per 100,000 population for coronary heart disease is greater in Not Hispanic or Latino Blacks or African Americans (236%), Blacks or African Americans (234%), Not Hispanics or Latinos (187%), and Not Hispanic or Latino Whites (184%) than in Whites (183%), Hispanics or Latinos (154%), American Indians/Native Americans (118%), and Asians or Pacific Islanders (108%). The rate for stroke is greater in Not Hispanic or Latino Blacks or African Americans (80%), Blacks or African Americans (79%), and Not Hispanics or Latinos (58%), than in Not Hispanic or Latino Whites (56%), Whites (56%), Asians or Pacific Islanders (51%), Hispanics or Latinos (44%), and American Indians/Native Americans (41%).d

Source: CDC Wonder. DATA2010…the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2004

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5.2 Gender

Males have a higher rate of death due to coronary heart disease compared to females (Figure 28). Differences in Internet use do not appear to differ largely between males and females (Figure 27).

Figure 27

Figure 27 compares percentage of individuals by gender who go online to access the Internet/WWW or to send/receive email and shows that more males (61.6%) use the Internet than females (56.7%).d

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project's Daily Internet Tracking Survey,
2002-2003


Figure 28

Figure 28 compares mortality due to heart disease and stroke by gender and shows that the age-adjusted mortality rate per 100,000 population is greater in males for both coronary heart disease (236%) and stroke (59%) than in females (148% for coronary heart disease and 56% for stroke).d

Source: CDC Wonder. DATA2010…the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2004

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5.3 Education Level

Those with lower levels of education experience much higher rates of death due to heart disease and stroke and also have lower rates of Internet use compared to those with higher levels of education (Figures 29 and 30).

Figure 29

Figure 29 compares percentage of individuals by education level who go online to access the Internet/WWW or to send/receive email and shows that individuals with lower education levels (23.8% with less than high school and 46.5% high school graduate) have lower rates of Internet use compared to individuals with higher education levels (76.2% with at least some college).d

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project's Daily Internet Tracking Survey,
2002-2003


Figure 30

Figure 30 compares mortality due to heart disease and stroke by education level and shows that the age-adjusted mortality rate per 100,000 population is greater in individuals with less than a high school education for both coronary heart disease (88%) and stroke (21%) than in high school graduates (75% for coronary heart disease, 16% for stroke) and in individuals with at least some college (33% for coronary heart disease and 7% for stroke).d

Source: CDC Wonder. DATA2010…the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2004

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