This page has been archived.

Click here to skip navigationDepartment of Health and Human Services logo

Expanding the Reach and Impact of
Consumer e-Health Tools

June 2006

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion logo

Table of Contents
Executive Summary (Stand-Alone)
Acknowledgments
Preface: A Vision of e-Health Benefits for All
Executive Summary
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Mapping Diversity to Understand Users’ Requirements for e-Health Tools
Chapter 3. Assessing the Evidence Base for e-Health Tools for Diverse Users
Chapter 4. Strategic Factors in Realizing the Potential of e-Health
Chapter 5. Partnerships for Meaningful Access
Conclusion
Appendix 1. Environmental Scan of 40 e-HealthTools
Appendix 2. Project Interviewees, Experts Consulted, and Reviewers
Appendix 3. Chapter 3 Literature Review Summary
References

< Back to Appendix 4 (Part 1)

Appendix 4. A Comparison of Internet Use and Health Status of Populations That Experience Health Disparities (Part 2)

This appendix provides side-by-side comparisons of Internet use and health status measures according to the Healthy People 2010 population categories for which data were available at the time of analysis. Not all health topics have measures for each variable. For example, diabetes has measures for race and ethnicity, gender, education level, geographic location, and age, whereas obesity has measures for race and ethnicity and gender only. These categories are those variables associated with health disparities. The data presented in this section highlight health status measures for diabetes, obesity, asthma, heart disease and stroke, cancer, physical activity, and tobacco use for select populations as well as the related Internet use profiles.

Data from the 2002–2003 Pew Internet & American Life Project’s Daily Internet Tracking Survey were the primary source of data for the technology profiles on Internet use. In addition, data from DATA2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s interactive database system for tracking Healthy People 2010, were used to present health status data as of January 2004. Although the absolute numbers of persons accessing the Internet were lower in 2002–2003 than in the most current Pew surveys (September 2005), the proportions hold true (S. Fox, personal communication, December 2005. See also www.pewinternet.org/trends/user_demo_12.05.05.htm).

1. Diabetes

1.1 Race and Ethnicity

American Indians/Alaska Natives, Hispanics/Latinos, and Blacks/African Americans have higher rates of diabetes compared to other racial and ethnic groups and also have the lowest rates of Internet use (Figures 1 and 2).

Figure 1

Figure 1 depicts data for the following eight racial/ethnic groups: (1) American Indian/Native American, (2) Asian or Pacific Islander, (3) Black or African American, (4) White, (5) Hispanic or Latino, (6) Not Hispanic or Latino, (7) Not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American, and (8) Not Hispanic or Latino, White. Figure 1 compares percentage of individuals from different racial and ethnic populations that go online to access the Internet/WWW or to send/receive email and shows that Not Hispanic or Latino Blacks or African Americans (46.4%), Blacks or African Americans (46.7%), American Indians/Native Americans (52.4%), and Hispanics or Latinos (58.0%), have lower rates of Internet use compared to Asians or Pacific Islanders (74.3%), Whites (60.5%), Not Hispanic or Latino Whites (60.5%), and Not Hispanics or Latinos (59.3%).d

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project’s Daily Internet Tracking Survey,
2002–2003


Figure 2

Figure 2 depicts data for the following eight racial/ethnic groups: (1) American Indian/Native American, (2) Asian or Pacific Islander, (3) Black or African American, (4) White, (5) Hispanic or Latino, (6) Not Hispanic or Latino, (7) Not Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American, and (8) Not Hispanic or Latino, White.  The figure compares the prevalence of diabetes by race and ethnicity and shows that the age-adjusted prevalence rate per 100,000 population is greater in American Indians/Native Americans (106%), Not Hispanic or Latino Blacks or African Americans (78%), Blacks or African Americans (77%), and Hispanics or Latinos (69%) than in Not Hispanics or Latinos (47%), Whites (44%), Not Hispanic or Latino Whites (42%), and Asians or Pacific Islanders (37%).d

Source: CDC Wonder. DATA2010…the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2004

Back to Top

1.2 Gender

Disparities in diabetes prevalence do not appear to exist between males and females, which is also the pattern with Internet use (Figures 3 and 4).

Figure 3

Figure 3 compares percentage of individuals by gender who go online to access the Internet/WWW or to send/receive email and shows that more males (61.6%) use the Internet than females (56.7%).d

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project's Daily Internet Tracking Survey,
2002-2003


Figure 4

Figure 4 compares the prevalence of diabetes by gender and shows that the age-adjusted prevalence rate per 100,000 population is greater in males (52%) than in females (46%).d

Source: CDC Wonder. DATA2010…the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2004

Back to Top

1.3 Education Level

Individuals with lower levels of education have higher rates of diabetes, but they have lower rates of Internet use compared to those with higher levels of education (Figures 5 and 6).

Figure 5

Figure 5 compares percentage of individuals by education level who go online to access the Internet/WWW or to send/receive email and shows that individuals with lower education levels (23.8% with less than high school and 46.5% high school graduate) have lower rates of Internet use compared to individuals with higher education levels (76.2% with at least some college).d

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project's Daily Internet Tracking Survey,
2002-2003


Figure 6

Figure 6 compares the prevalence of diabetes by education level and shows that the age-adjusted prevalence rate per 100,000 population is greater in individuals with less than a high school education (108%) than in high school graduates (80%) or at least some college (55%).d

Source: CDC Wonder. DATA2010…the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2004

Back to Top

1.4 Geographic Location

Those living in rural areas experience slightly higher rates of diabetes and also have lower rates of Internet use compared to those living in urban areas (Figures 7 and 8).

Figure 7

Figure 7 compares percentage of individuals who go online to access the Internet/WWW or to send/receive email by geographic location and shows that those living in urban areas (62.8%) have higher rates of Internet use compared to those living in rural areas (48.9%).d

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project's Daily Internet Tracking Survey,
2002-2003


Figure 8

Figure 8 compares the prevalence of diabetes by geographic location and shows that the age-adjusted prevalence rate per 100,000 population is greater in rural areas (54%) than in urban areas (46%).d

Source: CDC Wonder. DATA2010…the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2004

Back to Top

1.5 Age

Elderly populations (made up of individuals age 65 and older) have higher rates of diabetes compared to younger populations yet have the lowest rates of Internet use of all age groups (Figures 9 and 10).

Figure 9

Figure 9 compares percentage of individuals by age who go online to access the Internet/WWW or to send/receive email and shows that older populations (20.1% age 75 and older, and 25.9% age 65-74) have lower rates of Internet use compared to younger age groups (72.6% age 18-44 and 57.7% age 45-64).d

Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project's Daily Internet Tracking Survey,
2002-2003


Figure 10

Figure 10 compares the prevalence of diabetes by age and shows that the age-adjusted prevalence rate per 100,000 population is greater in individuals age 65-74 (167%) and age 75 and older (136%) than in those age 45-64 (93%) and age 18-44 (20%).d

Source: CDC Wonder. DATA2010…the Healthy People 2010 Database.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2004

Back to Top Appendix 4—Obesity >