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Baranowski T, Baranowski
J, Cullen KW, Marsh T, Islam N, Zakeri I, et al. Squire’s
Quest! Dietary outcome evaluation of a multimedia game.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2003;24:52-61.
children—fourth grade students; 690 Caucasian, 268
African American, 476 Hispanic, 105 other; 736 boys, 803
school-based computer with CD-ROM
Quest: a 10-session, interactive multimedia game that allows
user to engage in challenges requiring skills and goals
related to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption
group: nutrition education as usual. Intervention group:
interacted with the game for 10 sessions over 5 weeks.
100% juice, and vegetable consumption
group increased by one serving per day, but not enough
to meet five per day requirements.
DiNoia J, Schinke SP,
Pena JB, Schwinn TM. Evaluation of a brief computer-mediated
intervention to reduce HIV risk among early adolescent
females. Journal of Adolescent Health 2004;35:62-4.
early adolescent females age 11-14. Recruited from social
services agencies in New York State. 43% black, 46% Hispanic,
11% white; mean age 13.1
prevention: clinic-based computer with CD-ROM
It Safe: program uses didactic information along with an
interactive game to reinforce the information and a video
of woman who contracted HIV as an adolescent who discusses
prevention, attitudes, etc. Shown epidemiological data
related to incidence and prevalence among young women;
interact with scenarios and simulations to learn a four-step
model of assertive responding
group: wait-list control. Intervention group: interacted
with Keeping It Safe.
knowledge, protective attitudes (peer norms, partner norms,
attitudes toward sexually active youth), risk reduction
in the intervention group had higher posttest knowledge
and self-efficacy than the controls. Within-group analyses
showed that intervention group showed improvements in knowledge
and peer norms with trend toward improvement in partner
norms, attitudes, and self-efficacy, while control group
self-efficacy significantly decreased.
Duncan TE, Duncan SC,
Beauchamp N, Wells J, Ary DV. Development and evaluation
of an interactive CD-ROM refusal skills program to prevent
youth substance use: “refuse to use.” Journal
of Behavioral Medicine 2000;23:59-72. [Appropriateness,
high school students; 61% male, 39% female; mean age 15.2
abuse prevention: school-based computer with CD-ROM
to Use Program: designed to provide socially acceptable
refusal skills needed to deal with offers of marijuana.
Includes six refusal skill vignettes
group: no treatment. Intervention group: used computer-based
intervention as a group in a classroom setting.
for marijuana refusal, intention, social norms, recall
of refusal strategies
group showed greater refusal self-efficacy, greater intent
to refuse. Intervention group more likely to agree that
pressuring someone who says no is not good (social norms)
and recalled 50% of the strategies.
Frenn M, Malin S, Bansal
N, Delgado M, Greer Y, Havice M, et al. Addressing
health disparities in middle school students’ nutrition
and exercise. Journal of Community Health Nursing 2003;20:1-14.
[Acceptability, Applicability, Key Findings]
urban low- to middle- income middle school students; 58
African American, 47 Caucasian, 4 Hispanic, 9 Asian, 4
and physical activity: school-based computer with CD-ROM
and video sessions for those in precontemplation and contemplation
focused on raising awareness of current eating and exercise,
identifying benefits, and overcoming barriers to consuming
low-fat diets and exercise. Those in preparation, action,
and maintenance were trained as “peer models”
and co-led healthy labs. All students received online feedback.
group: traditional classroom sessions. Four-session Internet
and video intervention with snack lab and, in one school,
a gym lab
to low-fat foods and physical activity, food habits, physical
activity log, level of participation
in diet decreased with each Internet session in which students
participated. Effects of the intervention varied by gender
and race. Percentage of fat reduced significantly (p=.018)
for black, white, and black/Native American, and Hispanic
girls (but not Asian) in intervention group. Boys in the
control group decreased fat more than boys in intervention
group, but most of the intervention boys reported less
access to low-fat foods. Intervention group boys increased
physical activity for all races except Native American.
No difference by sex for physical activity. No effect of
peer-led food lab. Students with gym lab and Internet increased
physical activity. Internet and control had decrease in
exercise with less decrease in intervention than control
group. HP2010 goal of 30% or less calories from
fat was not reached.
Hornung RL, Lennon
PA, Garrett JM, DeVellis RG, Weinberg PD, Strecher VJ.
Interactive computer technology for skin cancer prevention
targeting children. American Journal of Preventive
Medicine 2000;18:69-76. [Applicability]
elementary school students (98% third and fourth grade);
44% girls, 56% boys
school-based computer with CD-ROM
using animated cartoon characters and video clips of a
dermatologist providing information; interactivity involved
choosing which segments to view in which order.
by classrooms into three groups: no-treatment control,
computer intervention, and standard didactic.
about the sun, attitudes re tanning, behavioral practices
changes in knowledge for CD-ROM group as compared to both
groups at posttest and followup. Significant differences
in attitude for CD-ROM group as compared to the other groups
at posttest, but the difference between computer group
and standard group no longer significant at followup. No
differences on behavior measures at either point.
Houston TK, Cooper
LA, Ford DE. Internet support groups for depression:
a 1-year prospective cohort study. American Journal
of Psychiatry 2002;159:2062-8. [Applicability]
adults recruited from online depression support groups
and message boards. 79% female, 42% unemployed, 82% at
least some college, 101 formally diagnosed with depression
home computer with Internet
support groups available in the public domain
cohort group from online sites, administered baseline and
followup surveys at 6 months and 12 months. Additionally,
compared findings to participants in another large study
one-half reported more than 5 hours of Internet depression
support group use in the prior 2 weeks. 95% agreed that
chatting on the Internet helped their symptoms; one-third
preferred online support, 81% still received face-to-face
treatment; 72% reported their providers knew of their online
support. At 1-year followup, 72.6% still participating
in the groups. 78.8% still receiving traditional treatment
as well. 62% said online experience influenced them to
ask their provider a question, and 26% had influenced them
to make a change in medications. This cohort had lower
levels of tangible, emotional, affectionate support and
positive social interactions compared with participants
from another large depression study. Social support scores
did not change over time between more frequent users of
the Internet support groups, indicating that face-to-face
support did not decline over time. Depression resolved
in 42.9% of frequent users compared to 20.7% of less frequent
Jantz C, Anderson J,
Gould SM. Using computer-based assessments to evaluate
interactive multimedia nutrition education among low-income
predominantly Hispanic participants. Journal of Nutrition
Education and Behavior 2002;34:252-60. [Appropriateness,
Applicability, Key Findings]
adults recruited from nutrition, health, and ESL programs
in Colorado; “primarily Hispanic and low income (<$15,000
clinic-based computer with interactive multimedia program
a Great Start: one of six modules in the La Cocina Saludable
Interactive Multimedia (IMM) program, which targets Hispanic
adults. This module provides knowledge about the importance
of breakfast, includes information about benefits and barriers,
emotional arousal/dramatic relief by emphasizing family,
self-efficacy by including practice activities.
group: interacted with computer program about budgeting.
Intervention group: interacted with computer program about
importance of breakfast.
attitude, stage of change
group significantly increased knowledge and attitudes.
No real change in stage of change due to short nature of
intervention. Use of IMM was faster than actual educator
delivering same materials.